大家好,欢迎进入对外汉语教学核心语法课堂
Hi,everyone!Welcome to the core grammar class of teaching Chinese as a second language. 今天我们讲第五讲 主语、 谓语和宾语。
Today we begin to study Lecture 5, the subject, the predicate and the object. 第一节 主语 一.
Section one, the subject. First, 充当主语的成分。
elements serving as the subject. 主语是叙述 说明或描写的对象。
The subject is the theme of a statement or a description or illustration. 汉语中充当主语的主要有名词 或短语、 代词、 “的”字短语
In Chinese, most subjects are nouns or noun phrases, pronouns, phrases of “de”, 数词、 数量(名)、 动词或短语和形容词或短语等
numerals, quantifiers(noun), verbs or verb phrases and adjectives or adjective phrases etc. (一)名词或短语。
Part one, nouns or noun phrases. 例如 ①书买了。
For example, (the book has been bought). 这里面的”书”就是一个名词 书是什么呢?说明的对象。
Here the word 书 is a noun, what is 书? The object of an illustration. 第②例:你的作业交了没有?”你的作业”是个名词短语 也是一个主语,是说明的一个对象。
Second example, (have you handed in your homework). 你的作业 is a noun phrase, and is also a subject,
the theme of an illustration. 第③ 口语老师姓什么?”口语老师”也是一个名词短语
Third, what is the spoken language teacher’s family name? 口语老师 is also a noun phrase. 所以呢,也是一个说明的对象,所以都是主语 (二)代词。
Therefore, it’s the theme of an illustration, so it’s a subject. Part two: pronouns. 例如: 第①:我们都学过一年汉语。
For example, first, (we all have studied Chinese for one year). 这个”我们”也是一个说明的 对象。
The phrase 我们 is also a theme of an illustration. 第②个:大家希望什么时候去?”大家”这个代词 也是一个说明的对象。
Second example, (what time shall we go)? The pronoun 大家 is also a theme of an illustration. (三)”的”字短语 例如:我买的很便宜 “我买的”实际上就是说我买的东西。
Part three, the phrases of “de”. For example, I bought them very cheap.
The phrase 我买的 actually means the things I bought. 这里面这个”的” 这个”的”。
Here is a 的. 所以我们叫”的”字短语。
So we call it the phrase of “de”. 第②个:她有两个孩子,大的今年八岁,小的今年五岁
这个”大的”,实际上是”大的孩子”,那么这也是个”的”字短语
Second example, (she has two children, the elder is eight and the younger is five).
This phrase 大的 actually means the elder children, so it’s also a phrase of “de”, 所以做主语,”小的”也是做主语。
and acts as the subject, the phrase 小的 also serves as the subject. (四) 数词和数量(名)。
Part four: numerals and quantifiers (noun). 例如:①一斤五块钱 “一斤”是一个说明的对象,所以呢也是个 主语。
For example, first, five yuan per half-kilo. The phrase 一斤 is the theme of an illustration, therefore it’s a subject. 这是一个数量。
It’s a quantifier. 第②个:一是一,二是二。
Second, one is one, two is two. 这个 “一”也是说明对象,”二”呢也是说明对象,所以呢也是主语。
The word 一 is the theme of an illustration, and so does the word 二, it is also a subject. 反正”一”和”二”呢都 是什么呢?”数词”,都是”数词”。
Anyway, what is 一 and 二? Numerals, they are all numerals. 应该注意的 是:汉语的主语一般表示已知的人或者是事物
Pay attention, in Chinese the subject generally specifies the person or thing which is known. 所谓已知就是说,说话人和听话人都知道,这样的事物
而数量(名)呢?一般表示非已知的人或者是事物
The so-called known means that such things which are known to the speaker and the listener.
And the quantifier? It usually indicates the person or thing which is unknown 所谓非已知就是说,说话人知道或者听话人不知道,或者是两个人都不知道这样的 情况。
The so-called unknown means that such things which are unknown to the speaker or the listener, or the both. 因此,数量(名)做主语有一些限制。
So, there are some limitations when the quantifiers act as the subject. 比如说我们来看例子,第①个例子: 你去书店买了什么?这是一个问句,A
问 B 回答:一本词典买了。
Let’s look at examples, first example: (what do you buy in the bookstore)? This a question,
A asked and B answered, 一本词典买了(buy a dictionary). 这个句子 语法是没有问题,但是呢不成立。
This sentence is grammatically correct, but it’s wrong. 为什么呢?就是说”一本词典”这是一个什么呢? 非已知的东西。
Why? What is 一本词典? Something unknown. 也就是说 听话人或者不知道这个一本词典是什么词典,所以呢这个句子 就错了。
In other words, the speaker doesn’t know what kind of the dictionary is, so this is an incorrect sentence. 那应该说什么呢?”买了一本词典。
What should we say? 买了一本词典. 这样表达就没有问题了 我们再看一例:A 问:
There is no problem of this expression. Let’s see another example: A asked, 你喝了几瓶啤酒?那么 B 回答说:三瓶喝了 这个句子也是不成立。
(how many bottles of beer did you drink)? And B answered, 三瓶喝了(I drank three bottles).
This is also an incorrect sentence. 也就是”三瓶”做主语了 那么这个句子也错了。
The phrase 三瓶 acts as the subject, so this sentence is also wrong. 为什么?因为”三瓶”是 是一个非已知的,就是听话的人不知道”三瓶”是什么样的”三瓶”
Why? Because 三瓶 is something unknown, namely the listener doesn’t what kind of 三瓶 is. 所以呢,应该改成什么呢?喝了三瓶。
Therefore, what’s the correct expression? 喝了三瓶. 放在后面就对了 数量(名)做主语啊,主要有以下几种
Put it at the end of the sentence. The quantifiers can act as the subject,
there are several major conditions as follows, 情况,也就是说数量(名)不是说不可以做主语,但是呢它有限制、
namely there are some restrictions when the quantifiers act as the subject. 有条件 我们看第一种情况,就是对比的时候,数量(名)可以做主语
Let’s look at the first case, the quantifiers can act as the subject on the occasion of comparison. 例如,我们看第一个例子:这两本书,一本 太难,一本太容易。
Let’s look at the first example, (the two books, one is too difficult, the other is too easy). 也就是说两本书进行对比的时候,”一本”、 “一本”就是
其中的一本太难,另一本是太容易。
In other words, when we compare the two books, the structure 一本, 一本 means that
one is too difficult, the other is too easy. 这种情况下,有 比较的时候,那么这个数量就可以做 主语。
In this case of comparison, the quantifiers can act as the subject. 第②例:他们两个人的经济情况差别太大 一个(人)在天上,一个(人)在地上
Second example, there is the huge wealth gap between the two man, one is a heaven, the other is underground. 那么这个”一个人”这个数量(名),”一个人”数量(名)。
So the phrase 一个人 is quantifier. 实际上也是在比较,也就是说两个人在进行比较的时候 那么这个”一个人”、
In fact, it’s a comparison, namely in the case of comparison between two person, the structure 一个人, “一个人”呢也可以做主语,可以做主语 第②种情况是什么样的情况呢?就是分配任务
一个人 can act as the subject. What is the second case? In the case of assigning tasks 或者分发物品的时候啊,这个数量(名) 也可以做主语。
or handing out stuffs, the quantifier can also act as the subject. 有些这样的情况下。
Such cases are as follows. 我们看第①个例子:咱们两个 一个(人)擦桌子,一个(人)擦黑板,怎么样?
Let’s look at the first example, (one of us wipes the table, the other cleans the blackboard, shall we)? 那么实际上这是一种什么呢?分配工作。
What does this sentence actually mean? Assigning tasks. 在分配工作的时候,两个人其中的一个人 擦桌子,另一个人擦黑板。
In the case of assigning tasks, one of the two people wipes the table, the other cleans the blackboard. 那么,一个(人)擦桌子,这个”一个(人)”
一个(人)擦黑板的”一个(人)”都是主语。
So the phrases 一个人 of 一个(人)擦桌子 and 一个人 of 一个(人)擦黑板 are all subjects. 那么,这种情况下也可以成立。
Therefore, such cases are all correct. 第②个:一间屋子里住三个人 这个实际上也是做什么呢?做分配任务
Second, (three people share one bedroom). What does this sentence actually mean? Assigning tasks. 分配任务,所以呢,可以说一间屋子住三个人。
Assigning tasks, therefore, we can say 一间屋子住三个人. 这个”一间屋子”也可以做主语 可以做主语。
The phrase 一间屋子 can also be subject. 3.
3. 就是强调的时候,数量(名)也可以做主语 也就是强调、
In the case of emphasis, the quantifiers (nouns) can be subject, namely when we emphasize 突出这个数量(名)的时候 这个数量(名)可以做主语。
and highlight the quantifiers (nouns), the quantifiers (nouns) can acts as subject. 那么,经常形成的一些说法、 一些 结构,或者是一些特别的句子。
Therefore, it usually forms some expression, some structures or some special sentences. 我们看,第一种情况是什么呢?”数量(名) +动词/也+不/没(又)…”
Let’s have a look, what’s the first case? “Quantifier(noun) + verb/也 + 不/没(又) …” 或者是什么呢?”连词+数量(名) +都/也…”这样的句子。
Or what? “Conjunction + Quantifier(noun) + 都/也 …”, such sentences like this. 我们看一下例子就比较清楚了 大家看例①:今天一个人都没来
Let’s look at examples and will make it clear, first example: (there is nobody here today). “一个人”这个是什么呢?是一个主语。
What is the phrase 一个人? It’s a subject. 所以呢是突出、 强调 没有人的意思,所以呢一个人。
Therefore it emphasizes and highlights the meaning of nobody, so 一个人 is a subject. 第②个:我一次也没迟到。
Second: (I’ve never been late). “一次” 这也是一个数量。
The phrase 一次 is also a quantifier. 那么它强调呢 这个”一次”,所以呢,这个”一次”也可以做主语
So it emphasizes the phrase 一次, therefore the phrase 一次 acts as subject. 第③:她很孤独,连一个朋友都没有 这个也是要突出、
Third, she’s very lonely, and doesn’t have any friends. It also highlights and 强调”一个朋友”,所以这种情况下,那么 这个数量呢也是可以做主语的。
emphasizes the phrase 一个朋友, therefore, this quantifier acts as subject. 第四种情况 是什么情况?就是在问句中,注意这问句是一个条件
What is the fourth scenario? In question, pay attention to the condition of question, 数量(名)呢也可以做主语,比如说,第一个例子:一瓶啤酒够喝吗?
这是一个什么呢?问句。
the qualifier(noun) can be subject, for example, the first example, (is one bottle of beer enough for drinking)? “一瓶啤酒”是一个说明的对象,是一个主语 所以呢可以,没有问题。
“一瓶啤酒” is an object which is illustrated, it’s a subject, so it’s right. 第②个:两块钱怎么样?也是一个问句 这种情况下,两块钱可以做主语,也是没有问题
Second, (what about two yuan?) It’s also a question. In this scenario, the phrase 两块钱 can be subject, it’s also correct. 第五种情况:就是表示价格、 价钱或者说明内部的构成
The fifth scenario, when the quantifier specifies price, money or the internal composition, 成分的时候,这个数量(名)啊也可以做主语
那么一般情况下都是什么样的呢?形成一种格式、 固定的说法
it also can be subject.
And what is the common case? It forms a fixed expression, “数量(名)+数量(名)”这样的句子、 这样的句子 我们看第①例:一斤橘子三块钱。
such sentences like “quantifier(verb) + quantifier(verb)”.
Let’s look at the first example, (three yuan per half-kilo oranges). “一斤橘子”是一个主语 “三块钱”是说明一斤橘子的价格、
价格的 第②个:一年十二个月。
The phrase 一斤橘子 is a subject and 三块钱 specifies the price of half-kilo oranges.
Second, (twelve months a year). “一年”是个数量 也是主语。
The phrase 一年 is a quantifier and is also a subject. “十二个月”是说明”一年的”,它的内部,我们所谓的内部构成成分的
The phrase 十二个月 is used to illustrate 一年, our so-called internal composition. 所以这种情况下,一年呢做主语,数量做主语也是没有问题、
So in this scenario, 一年 acts as subject, it’s correct that the quantifier acts subject. 没有问题 第(五)就是动词短语
That’s OK. Part five, verb phrases. 汉语的动词短语呢也可以做主语,也就是说可以作为一个 陈述或者是描写的、 说明的对象。
In Chinese, the verb phrases can also be subject, in other words, it can also be the theme of
a statement or a description or illustration. 我们来看一下第①例: 笑总比哭好。
Let’s look at the first example, (smiling is always better than crying). 这个”笑”是个动词。
The word 笑 is a verb. 我们看”笑总比哭好” 那么,”比哭好”是来说明”笑”的 所以呢这个”笑”是个主语。
Let’s look at the sentence 笑总比哭好, the phrase 比哭好 is used to illustrate 笑,
so the word “笑” is a subject. 第②个下雨很麻烦 “下雨”是一个动词,动词短语,”很麻烦”是说明”下雨”这种情况
Second, (raining is a trouble), 下雨 is a verb, a verb phrase, and 很麻烦 describes the scenario of 下雨. 所以呢也可以”下雨”呢做主语是没有问题的 第六种情况是形容词短语。
Therefore, the phrase 下雨 can be subject. Part six, adjective phrases. 形容词或者形容词短语也可以做主语 我们看第①例:瘦比胖好。
Adjectives or adjective phrases can also be subject. Let’s look at the first example: (thin is better than fat). “瘦”是形容词 比胖好呢是说明这个”瘦”的,所以这个”瘦” 就是形容词做主语了。
The word 瘦 is an adjective, 比胖好 is used for illustrating 瘦, so the adjective 瘦 acts as a subject. 第②个:太慢也不行。
Second: (it can’t be too slow). “太慢”是一个形容词的短语 那么,”也不行”是说明”太慢”,所以呢这个也
可以做主语。
太慢 is an adjective phrase, so 也不行 is used for illustrating 太慢, and it can also be subject. 二.
Second. 主语的位置 主语一般是位于句首,也就是句子的最前面
我们来看一下,第①个:这事不好办。
Position of subject. The subject usually occurs at the beginning of a sentence.
Let’s have a look, first, (this matter is difficult). “这事”是主语 我们看”这事不好办”在这个句子的最前面。
这事 is a subject, we see that 这事不好办 is at the beginning of this sentence. 第②个:时间过得这快。
Second, (how time flies). 时间也在 最前面。
The phrase 时间 is also at the beginning. 口语中,主语有时也可以位于在句末,就是放在句子的最后边
In spoken language, the subject can be also at the end of the sentence 用来强调谓语,就是为了突出
to emphasize the predicate, and highlight 说明这个谓语的重要,所以呢,它把这个主语呢放在了 后面。
the importance of the predicate, therefore the subject is put at the end. 这个时候主语的前面呢有一个逗号,主语有一个逗号,这是一个条件 隔开。
In this case, there is a comma before the subject,
and the subject follows the comma, this is a condition, a separation. 我们看一下例子就比较清楚。
Let’s look at examples and will make it clear。 第①个:真不错,你的口语! 实际上就是说你的口语真不错。
First, (your spoken language is pretty good)! It actually means that your oral language is very well. 那么为什么放在后面呢? “你的口语”是个主语,真不错!那么放在后面就是为了
Why put it at the end? The phrase 你的口语 is a subject, 真不错! Put it behind is used to 突出、 说明、 强调”真不错” 所以放在了后面。
highlight, illustrate and emphasize 真不错, so it’s at the end. 主语”你的口语”放在了后面 第②例:下了一天雨,昨天。
The subject 你的口语 is put at the end. Second example, (it rained all day yesterday). “昨天”是什么?是主语 这个句子应该说是”昨天下了一天雨”
What is the phrase 昨天? It’s a subject. This sentence should be 昨天下了一天雨. 那么,为什么”昨天”跑在后面了呢?就是为了突出、 强调
So, why does 昨天 occur at the end? To highlight, emphasize “下了一天雨”这种 这种情况,所以呢把”昨天”放在后面
the scenario of 下了一天雨, so 昨天 is put at the end.