(一) 代词的类别。
(I)Categories of Pronouns 代替名词、 动词、 形容词等的词叫做代词
Words that are used in place of nouns, verbs, adjectives and other words are called pronouns 代词呢可以按照意义分为三类:人称代词、 指示代词 疑问代词。
Pronouns can be divided into three categories according to their meanings: personal pronoun, demonstrative pronounand interrogative pronoun. 1.
1. 人称代词 代替人物的词叫做人称代词。
Personal pronoun the word that is used in place of person is called personal pronoun. 汉语的人称代词主要有我、 我们 你、 你们、 他、
Personal pronouns in Chinese mainly include me, us, you, him, 他们,还有这个她的她们 宝盖它的它和它们、
Them, her, it and they 自己、 别人、 大家等 (1)”我”
Oneself, others, everyone etc. (1) “wo” (I) 是第一人称单数,指代说话人,复数形式是 “我们” 例如:例一的我姓李。
is the first person singular, referring to the speaker, The plural form is “wo men” (we), for example: “wo” (I) am Mr. Lee. 这个 “我” 例二的我们都是留学生。
This “wo” (I) here example two, “wo men” (we) are all foreign students. 这个”我们” (2)”咱”
也是第一人称单数,指代说话人,但是方言说法复数形式是 “咱们”。
The “wo men” (we) here (2) “Zan” (we)
is also the first person singular, referring to the speaker, but it is the form of dialect. The plural form is “zan men” (we). “咱” 还可以表示第一人称复数 相当于呢 “咱们”。
“zan” (we) can also represent the first person plural, equivalent to “zan men” (we). 例如 ①别看我没上过学,可咱知道什么是好,什么是坏
Example ① even if Idon’t have an education, “zan” (I) know right from wrong. 这里面的 “咱” 呢就相当于 “我”。
The “zan” here is equivalent to“wo” (I). ②孩子,咱回家吧! 这个例子中的 “咱” 呢不是
② Child, we shall go home! “zan” (we) does not mean “我” 的意思,它是 “咱们” 的意思,也就是说相当于
“wo” (I), but “wo men” (we), that is to say, it is equivalent to “我们” (3)”你”
“wo men” (we) (3) “ni” (you) 是第二人称单数 指代听话人,复数形式是 “你们”
is second person singular, referring to the listener. The plural form is “ni men” (you) 例如:①你叫什么名字?这里面的 “你” 就是单数 ②老师叫你们呢!这里面
For example: ① what is your name? the “ni” here is singular. ② the teacher is calling “ni men” (you)! Here “你们” 是复数形式 (4)”您”
the ”ni men” (you) is a plural form (4) “nin” (you) 也是第二人称单数 是一种呢敬称,也就是说一种客气的说法。
is also second person singular. It is a kind of respect, that is, a kind of polite. 例如:①先生 您贵姓?这里面 “您” 就是一种敬称
For example: ①May I have “nin” (your) name, sir?The “nin” here is a kind of respect. ②老师,我想问您一个问题,可以吗?这里边 “您” 呢也是一种敬称
② Teacher, I would like to ask “nin” (you) a question. Is that okay? The “nin” here is also a kind of respect. (5)”他” 是第三人称单数,指代说话人或听话人以外的男性
(5) “ta” (he) is third person singular, referring to the speaker or the man other than the listener 性别不明,或者是没有区别必要的时候也用 “他” 来指代它的复数形式是 “他们”。
with ambiguous gender, or when there is no need to identify, the “ta” is used to refer to. Its plural form is “ta men” (they). 例如:①他是我同屋。
For example: ①“ta” is my roommate. 这个 “他” 是 单数。
The “ta” (he) here is singular. ②从名字看不出来他是男的还是女的 而这个里面的这个
② the gender cannot be identified from the name. Here “他” 未必就是男性,为什么呢?就是不知道是男的还是女的时候也就用的这个
男性的 “他”。
the “ta” (he) may not be male. Why? The “ta” (he) will be used when the gender is ambiguous. (6) “她”
(6) “ta” (she) 也是第三人称单数,指代说话人和听话人以外的女性 它的复数形式是 “她们”。
is also third person singular, referring to the speaker and the female other than the listener. Its plural form is “ta men” (they). 例如:①她是我姐姐。
For example: ①“ta” (she) is my sister. 这里面 “她” 是单数 ②你认识她们吗?这个 “她们”
The “ta” (she) is singular ② Do you know “ta men” (them)? The “ta men” here 是复数,指的是女性 (7)”它”
is plural, referring to female (7) “ta” (it) 指代人以外的事物 复数形式是 “它们”。
refers to the thing other than people the plural form is “ta men” (they or them) 例如:①这个苹果已经坏了 扔了它吧。
For example: ① the apple is bad. Throw“ta” (it) 这里面 “它” 就是指苹果,是东西 ②这些苹果已经坏了,扔了它们吧。
The “ta” (it) here refers to the apple, a thing. ②These apples are bad. Throw “ta men” (them). 这里面 “它们” 呢是指前面的这些苹果 所以呢也是指个东西。
The “ta men” (them) here refers to these apples mentioned above. And they are also things. 2.
2. 指示代词称代人或事物等的代词叫做指示代词
Demonstrative pronounPronouns that are used in place of people or things are called demonstrative pronouns 汉语的指示代词有近指和远指的区别 近指用 “这”,远指用 “那”。
Demonstrative pronouns in Chinese are different in near and far demonstrative pronoun. “zhe” (here) is used for near demonstrative pronoun. “na” (there) is used for far demonstrative pronoun. 汉语的指示代词主要有 我们看一下这个表格。
Demonstrative pronouns in Chinese mainly include let us see the chart. 那么 指代处所的,那么近指有
Well, near demonstrative pronouns referring to the place include “这儿””这里”,远指有 “那儿”
“zhe er” (here) “zhe li” (here), and far demonstrative pronouns referring to the place include “na er” (there) “那里” 比如说:这儿/这里是我们上课的教室。
“na li” (there) for instance: “zhe er”/”zhe li” (here) is our classroom. 那儿/那里 是老师的办公室。
“na er”/”na li” (there) is teachers’ office. 这里面的”这儿/这里”、 “那儿/那里” 都是指代处所。
Here “zhe er”/”zhe li”, “na er”/”na li” refer to places. 指代性质或者方式的 用什么呢?近指用 “这样”
What does demonstrative pronouns referring to nature or method used for? Near demonstrative pronouns are used for “zhe yang” (this kind) “这么样” 远指用 “那样””那么样”。
“zhe me yang” (such or this kind of); far demonstrative pronouns are used for “na me yang” (that kind) 比如说 这样/这么样听话的孩子很少见。
For instance, such obedient children are rare. 那样/那么样顽皮的孩子很常见。
That naughty child is very common. 这里面的 “这样/这么样””那样/那么样” 都是指代什么呢?性质
What do “zhe yang/zhe me yang” and “na yang/na me yang” refer to? Nature 那么指代人,代替人或事物的 那么近指用
Near demonstrative pronouns referring to people or things use “这位””这个”,远指用 “那位””那个” 比如说:这位是小王。
“zhe wei”“zhe ge” (this), far demonstrative pronouns use “na wei”“na ge” (that), for example: this is Mr. wang. 这里面的 “这位” 那位是小李。
The “zhe wei” here That is Mr. Lee. “这位” 是近指,”那位” 是远指 指代时间的
“Zhe wei” is near demonstrative pronoun, “na wei” is far demonstrative pronoun. What is demonstrative pronoun 主要有什么呢?”这时””这会儿”, 这个是近指。
referring to time? “zhe shi”“zhe hui er” (now). This is near demonstrative pronoun. 远指是 “那时””那会儿” 比如说,例一:这时/这会儿他一定 在看电视。
Far demonstrative pronoun is “ na shi”“na hui er” (that time) for instance, example one: he must be watching TV “zhe shi”“zhe hui er” (now). 这里的 “这时/这会儿” 就是近指,表示时间 例二:那时/那会儿他在学习。
The “zhe shi/zhe hui er” here refer to near demonstrative pronoun and represent for time. Example two: he was studying at that time. “那时/那会儿” 都是远指,也是表示时间 3.
“na shi/na hui er” is far demonstrative pronoun and stands for time 3. 疑问代词用来表示疑问的代词叫做疑问代词。
Interrogative pronounsThe pronoun used to express doubt is called interrogative pronoun. 汉语的疑问代词主要有 下面一些。
Interrogative pronouns in Chinese mainly include… 我们来看一下表格,问人的 主要用什么呢?有
Let us see a chart. What are interrogative pronouns referring to people? “谁 什么人、 哪,哪位和哪个” 比如说谁是你的老师?这个
“shui, shen me ren, na, na wei and na ge” (who) for example, shui (who) is your teacher? The “谁” 问的是人,你们的老师是哪位?这个 “哪位” 问的也是人。
“shui” refer to people. Na wei (Who) is your teavher? The “na wei” here also refers to people. 他是什么人? 问的也是人。
Ta shi shen me ren (Who is him)? It also refers to people. 应该注意的是,注意什么问题呢?就是 “什么人”
It should be noted that the expression of “shen me ren” (who) 这种说法 是不太礼貌的一种说法,所以呢问人的时候
is not polite. Therefore, when you ask someone 最好不要用这种形式或者这些词语 问事物的用什么呢?就是
You’d better not use words like it. What words shall be used when it comes to things? That is “什么东西” 或者 “什么事” 或者是 “哪个”
“shen me dong xi” (what things), “shen me shi” (what’s up) or “na ge” (which one) “哪本””哪件”,就是 “哪”加上量词这样的说法。
“na ben”“na jian” (which one).it is the expression that is added with quantifiers, such as“na”. 比如说,你做什么工作?这个 “什么” 问的就是 事物。
For instance, what’s your job?The “shen me” (what) here refers to things. 你喜欢哪件衣服?问的呢也是事物 问处所的
Which dress do you like? It is also a question about things. When it comes to place, 就是说问地方的,用什么呢?用的是 “哪儿”
What words shall be used? It is the expression of “na er” “哪里” 或者 “什么地方” 这样的说法
“na li”(where) or “shen me di fang” (what place). 比如说第一个例子,你住在哪里?
你住在哪儿?你住在什么地方?那么这些都是问什么呢?地方
Take the first as an example. Where do you live? Well, what does it refer to? Place 问数量,那么用什么呢?用的是 “几” 和 “多少”
What words shall be used in quantity? “Ji” and “duo shao” (how many/how much) 比如说第一个例子,你买了几斤苹果?这个 “几斤” 问的就是数量。
For example, how many apples have you bought? The “ji jin” (how many) refers to quantity. 你们班有多少学生?这个 “多少” 也是问的数量。
How many students in your classroom? The “duo shao” (how many) also refers to quantity. 那问性质用什么呢?用的是 “怎么、 怎么样,怎样或者是怎么样”
What words shall be used in nature? “zen me, zen me yang or zen yang” (what kind, what about) 比如说第一个例子:他是怎么一个人?这个 “怎么” 就是问这个人的性质。
Take an example of “zen me”: What kind of person was him? The “zen me” is used to ask the nature of this people. 第二个:昨天的电影怎样/怎么样?问的也是性质 那么问方式,问方式的
Example two: what about the movie yesterday? It is also used here to ask the nature. The words used to ask method 那么用的也是 “怎么、 怎么样,怎样、 怎么样”
are also “zen me, zen me yang, zen yang” 比如说你们是怎么找到他的?这个 “怎么” 呢
For example, how did you find him? The “zen me” (how) here 不是问的性质,而是问的是方式,就是你找到他的方式是什么 或者是用
is not the nature, but method, that is, what method do you used to find him? Or the words such as “怎样”、 “怎么样” 也可以 “你们是 怎样找到他的?”或者是
“zen yang”, “zen me yang” are okay as well. “你们是怎么样找到他的?” (二)代词的作用
How did you find him? (II) the function of pronoun
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代词可以做主语、 宾语、 定语,有的还可以做状语、 谓语 1.
Pronouns can be used as subject, object, attribute, and some can also be used as adverbs, predicate 1. 做主语。
Used as subject ①这是书,那是本子。
① This is a book, and that is a notebook. 这里面的 “这””那” 都是主语。
“zhe” (this), “na” (that) are subjects. ②这儿不能抽烟。
② No smoking here. 这里的 “这儿” 也是主语。
The “zhe er” (here) is also the subject. 2.
2. 做宾语 ①我住这儿,这里的 “这儿” 是一个宾语。
Used as object ①I live here. The “zhe er” (here) is an object. 你住那儿。
You live there. 这里的 “那儿” 也是宾语 例二的你觉得怎么样?这个
“怎么样” 呢也是一个宾语 3.
The “na er” (there) is also an object. In the example two, what do you think? The
“zen me yang” (what) is also an object. 作定语。
Used asattributive 我们看例一的,这钱我不能要!这个 “这” 是做定语。
Let us see an example. I cannot accept this money. The “zhe” (this) is used as an attribute. 例二的那人是谁?那 “那” 也是定语
Example two, who is that? The “na” (that) is also an attribute. 代词作定语带 “的” 的问题
Pronouns used as attributes with “de” (1)人称代词做表示人的名词的定语,一般不带”的” 做其他名词的定语,要带 “的”。
(1) There is no “de” after personal pronouns used as the attributive of nouns referring to people. And when personal pronouns are used as the attributive of other nouns, “de” shall be used after personal pronouns. 例如:他爸爸 这个 “他” 我们说后面没有 “的”。
For example: “ta” (his) father There is no “de” after “ta” here. 你弟弟 这个 “你” 后面也没有 “的”。
“ni” (your) brother There is no “de” after “ni” as well 我们老师 这个 “我们” 的后面也没有 “的”
“wo men” (our) teacher There is also no “de” after “wo men” 但是他的东西,你的手,我们的桌子,这个 “他”、 “你”、 “我们”
However, for example, “ta de” (his) stuff, “ni de” (your) hands and “wo men de” (our) desk, there are “de” 的后面呢都是有 “的” 的 (2)
after “ta”, “ni” and “wo men” (2) 指示代词做定语不带 “的”。
There is no “de” after demonstrative pronoun when it is used as attribute. 例如 这人,那班,这东西,那书包。
For example, “zhe” (this) people, “na” (that) stuff, “zhe” (this) stuff, “na” (that) schoolbag 这里面的 “这””那” 后面呢 都没有这个 “的”。
There is no “de” after the “zhe” and “na” here. 疑问代词 作定语有的要带 “的”,有的不带 “的”。
Interrogative pronoun It depends on circumstances, whetherthere is “de” after interrogative pronoun which is used as attribute or not. 一般情况下 “谁””怎样””怎么样” 作定语要带”的”。
In general, there is “de”after“shui” (who), “zen yang” (how) and “zen me yang” (what about) which are used as attributes. 我们来看一个例子 第一例一:这是谁的钱包?这个 “谁”
Let us see an example, example one: Whose purse is it?There is “de” 的后面有 “的” 她是谁的妈妈?这个 “谁” 的后面也有”的”。
after the “shui” (whose) whose mom she is? There is “de” after the “shui” here. 第三例 那个大学是怎样的一所大学?这个 “怎样的” 后面也是有
Example three, what does that university look like? There is also “de” “的” 的 第四例,他是怎么样的一个人?这个 “怎么样”
After the “zen yang de” example four, what kind of person was him? There is also “de” 的后面也是有 “的” 的 应该注意的是,”怎样”
afterthe “zen me yang”one should also note that, when “zen yang” “怎么样”作定语 中心语一般为 “一 + 量词 +
and “zen me yang” are used as attributes, the head is generally formed with “yi (one)+quantifier+
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名词”,不能是单个的名词 例如,我们看一看,他是怎样/怎么样的一个人
noun”, and the single noun is wrong here. For instance, let us take a look, what kind of “yi ge ren” (a person) he is? 你不知道吗?这样的一个句子啊是 错误的。
don’t you know? This sentence is wrong. 为什么呢?这个 “人” 是一个名词。
Why? The “ren” (person) here is a noun. 正确的说法应该是什么呢? 他是怎样或者是怎么样的一个人,也就是说应该是
What is the right expression? how does he look like or what kind of person is him? That is to say, 数词 + 量词 + 名词,而不能是单个的名词 4.
It should not be a single noun but numeral + quantifier + noun. 4. 做状语 ①今天这么热,不去怎么样?这个句子里面 “这么” 就是做状语的。
Used as adverbial① It is so hot today. Is it okay that we do not go? The “zhe me” (so) is used as adverbial here. 第二个 咱们怎么去公园?这个 “怎么” 呢也是做状语 5.
Example two, How do we go to the park?The “zen me” (how) is also used as adverbial. 5. 做谓语。
Used as predicate 例一:你怎么了?这个 “怎么”
Example one: what’s wrong with you? The “zen me” (what’s wrong) 是做的谓语的,是说明这个主语 “你” 的 所以呢它是谓语。
is used as a predicate to state the subject of you.Therefore, it is a predicate. 例二呢,我们后天再去怎么样?这个 “怎么样” 呢也是
Example two, what about we go the day after tomorrow? The “zen me yang” is also 谓语,说明 “我们后天去” 这个这种情况的
a predicate to describe the issue of “we go the day after tomorrow”

 


 

二• 疑问代词的特殊用法。
II.Special usage of interrogative pronouns. (一)用于反问句 例如①烤鸭谁没吃过呀?
(I) Used in rhetorical questions example①Who did not eat roast duck ah? 这个烤鸭谁没去吃过呀,不是说问的哪个人没有吃过烤鸭,它的意思是什么呢?
In this sentence, it is not asking which people have not eaten roast duck, what does it mean? 烤鸭谁都吃过,它是一个反问句 例②我哪儿知道他什么时候走的?
Who did not eat roast duck ah? It is a rhetorical question. Example ② how do I know when he’s going? 这个哪儿问的不是地方,它不是问的地方,它的意思是我不知道
它是一种否定,他什么时候走的。
The “na er” (how) is not asking the place, but tell the people that I don’t know
It is a negation. when he was going. 也就是说它是一种反问句 (二)表示任指
In other words, it is a rhetorical question (II) refer to general denotation ①我们班的学生谁都会说汉语。
①Everyone in our class can speak Chinese. 这里边的”谁”,这一个句子里的”谁”是什么意思呢? 它是指任何人的意思,任何一个人。
What does the “shui” (everyone) mean here? It refers to anyone, everyone. 例②什么时候都可以找我 这个什么时候是任何时候的意思,所以呢它表示什么呢?就是任指
Example② you can find me in any time. The “shen me shi hou” means any time So what does it refer to? General denotation [空白-录音] 那么”谁……谁……””什么……什么……””哪儿……哪儿……””怎么……
[Blank-recording] Then” shui…shui…”“shen me…shen me…”“na er…na er…”“zen me… 怎么……”等也能用来表示任指。
Zen me…” etc. can be used to represent general denotation. 例如:第①例 谁想去谁去。
For instance: example①“shui xiang qu shui qu”. 就是 它的意思就是任何人想去任何人都可以去,是这样的意思。
It means that anyone who wants to go can go. 所以是一种 任指。
Hence, it is a general denotation. 第②例:什么时候有钱,什么时候再买。
Example②: you can buy it when you get money. 就是任何时候有钱任何时候 都可以买的意思,所以呢它也是一种任指。
It means that you can buy it anytime when you get money. Therefore, it is also a general denotation. 第③例:放假了,想怎么玩 就怎么玩,也是一种任何方式玩都可以的。
Example③: it is holiday, you can play whatever you want to. It means that you can play in any ways. 所以呢都是呢表示任指 但是它有个特点,就是两个两两的搭配地使用
So it is also a general denotation. However, it has a feature that is used in pairs with two 注意,我们看一下下面两个例子,我们先看第①个例子,你喜欢吃什么 就什么吃。
Pay attention, let us have a look at the following two examples. Example①, you can eat you like whatever. 这个句子我们说是错误的 错误在什么地方呢?就是这个什么的位置不对,正确的说法应该是
This sentence is wrong. The position of “shen me” (whatever) is wrong. The right expression shall be 你喜欢吃什么,就吃什么。
you can eat whatever you like. 也就是吃 什么,这个什么应该放在吃的后面,而不应该放在前面。
That is to say, the “shen me” shall be placed after “chi” (eat). 第②例 哪儿有意思,我们就哪儿去。
Example②, “na er you yi si, wo men jiu na er qu”. 这个也是错误的 这个哪儿呢不应该放在去的前边,正确的说法应该是
哪儿有意思,我们就去哪儿。
This sentence is also wrong. The “na er” shall not be placed before “qu”. The right expression shall be na er you yi si, wo men jiu qu na er. 也就是说哪儿应该放在去的后面做宾语 (三)表示不定指
That is to say that “ne er” shall be placed after “qu” and used as an object (III) refer to non-Identifiable reference 疑问代词”谁””什么””哪儿”等还可以用来指不确定的人或事物等
例如:今天晚上我想跟谁去看电影。
The pronoun “shui”(who), “shen me”(what) and “na er”(where) can also be used to refer to people or things that are not sure
For example: I want to go to the movie with “shui” (who) tonight. 这个句子里 “谁”是什么意思呢?”谁”是指不确定的人
What does “shui” mean in this sentence? The “shui” refers to a person who is not sure. 它相当于什么呢?”某人”,是这个意思。
What does it equal to?“Someone”, that is right. 第②例 现在已经十一点了,咱们去饭馆吃点什么吧。
Example②, Now it is eleven o’clock, let’s go eat “shen me” (something) in the restaurant. 这个里面的 “什么”呢,这个里面的”什么”呀
The “shen me” here 也是指不确定的东西,它相当于是什么呢?”某东西,”某东西””
also refers to things that are not sure.What does it equal to?“Something” 第③例的,这个人我好像在哪儿见过。
Example③, I seem to see this person somewhere. 这个”哪儿”也是指”不确定的地方,” 相当于是什么呢?”某地”
The “na er” (somewhere) also refers to the place which is not sure. It is the same as “somewhere” (四)表示虚指口语中,人称代词他有时并不指具体的人
(IV) Imaginary reference In spoken language, the personal pronoun of “ta” sometimes do not refer to specific people 只起着衬字的作用,例如 我也吃他一个苹果。
Only play a role in setting off, for example, I also eat “ta”an apple. 这个例子中的他呀不是指人,而是虚指
The “ta” here does not refer to people, but an imaginary reference 也就是说他指的这个东西是没有什么东西,是一个衬字,起着一个帮助的作用
That is to say that the thing mentioned here refers to nothing. It only plays a role in setting off. 第②例,咱也看他一次。
Example②, we go to see “ta” at once. 这个看他一次,这个”他”呀也不是指人,也是虚指,所以它也起着一种帮衬的作用
The “ta” does not refer to people as well, but an imaginary reference. Hence, it also plays a role in setting off.