第二节 谓语。
Section two, the predicate. 一、 充当谓语的词语
First, words acting as predicate. 谓语是对主语进行说明、 描写或者叙述
The predicate serves to state, describe or illustrate the subject. 充当谓语的既可以是动词或者短语、 形容词或者短语,也可以是名词或者短语
The predicate can be verb or verb phrase, adjective or adjective phrase, noun or noun phrase, 数量(名)和主谓短语等都可以 (一)动词短语。
quantifier(noun) and subject-predicate phrase. Part one, verb phrase. 我们来看第①个例子 ①我吃面包。
Let’s look at the first example, (I have some bread). “吃面包”是一个什么呢?动词短语,所以呢 可以做谓语。
What is the phrase 吃面包? A verb phrase, so it can act as predicate. “吃面包”是说明我的,对吧。
吃面包 serves to describe me, right? 第②个:他们走了半个小时了 “走了半个小时了”是什么?动词短语,所以可以来说明他们
Second, (they have walked for half an hour). What is the phrase 走了半小时了?
A verb phrase, so it serves to describe them. (二)形容词短语 形容词短语也可以做谓语。
Part two, adjective phrase. Adjective phrase can also act predicate. 我们看两个例子。
Let’s look at two examples. 第①:外面特别冷 特别冷,”冷”是个形容词,”特别”是个副词,所以它呢
First, (it’s very cold outside), the phrase 特别冷, 冷 is an adjective, 特别 is an adverb, so it 形成一个短语,那么来说明”外面”,所以是作谓语。
forms a phrase to illustrate 外面, and acts as the predicate. 第②:飞机非常安全 “非常安全”是一个形容词短语,所以呢也是来说明飞机的
Second, (the airplane is perfectly safe), 非常安全 is an adjective, so it describes the airplane. 要特别注意的是下面的一些情况 1.
Pay attention the situations as follows, 1. 形容词除下面两种情况下可以 单独做谓语以外,一般不能单独做谓语
An adjective can’t act as predicate alone except two cases which we’ll discuss below. 也就是说,一个形容词、 光杆的形容词做谓语有条件限制。
In other words, there are some limitations when a single adjective acts as the predicate. 我们看第一种情况 就是对比时,注意这个条件很重要,就是比较、
对比的时候 可以单独做谓语。
Let’s look at the first case, on the occasion of contrast, its’ important to note this condition,
namely, an adjective used to compare and contrast can be predicate. 我们来看两个例子。
Let’s look at two examples. 第①:你高 他矮。
First, (you’re tall and he’s short). “高”是个形容词,”矮”也是个形容词 它们都是做谓语的。
The word 高 is an adjective and so is 矮, they both act as predicate. 那么这种情况下,我们看有高、 矮的对比,你和他的对比
所以这种情况下呢,这个”高”和”矮”呀
So in this case, there are contrasts between tall and short, you and he,
Hence in this case, 高 and 矮 就可以单独做一个谓语来说明”你”和”他”的。
can act as predicate to describe 你 and 他. 第②个例子:这件 好看,那件不好看。
Second example, (this one is nice, that one is ugly). 那么这是,同样是一种什么呢?
比较或者对比,”这件”和”那件”的比较,”好看”和”不好看”的比较。
Comparison or contrast, comparison between 这件 and 那件, comparison between 好看 and 不好看. 那么好看 这个形容词就可以做一个谓语、 做谓语。
So the adjective can act as a predicate. 这是第一种情况 第二种情况。
This is the first case. The second case. 就是问句或是答句中,可以单独做谓语 就是来问问题或者是回答问题的时候也可以。
In questions or answers, a predicate can act as a predicate to ask questions or answer questions. 我们来看第①例:A问:你渴吗? “渴”是个形容词,来说明”你”的
Let’s look at the first example, A asked, (are you thirsty)? The word 渴 is an adjective which describes 你. 那么这个”渴”呢做谓语。
So the word 渴 acts as a predicate. 那 B 回答说什么呢?我渴 这”渴”就是形容词,也是单独做谓语,所以呢也是没有问题
What does B answer? (I’m thirsty). The word 渴 is an adjective, and acts as a predicate, so that’s right. 为什么?处在一种问答的这种情况。
Why? In the case of question-and-answer. 再看第②例:A 问:汉字难吗? “难”是形容词,”难”呢也是做谓语说明”汉字”
Look at the second example, A asked: (are Chinese characters hard)? 难 is an adjective,
and acts as predicate to describe “汉字” 所以呢,这个句子是成立没问题。
So this is a correct sentence. B 回答:汉字难 这个”难”呢又是做了一个谓语,是说明”汉字”,所以呢
这样的句子也成立。
B answered: (the Chinese characters are hard). The word 难 is also a predicate to describe 汉字, therefore
such sentence is also correct. 为什么呢?条件就是说它可以在问答这种情况下呢,可以单独地使用 2.
Why? The condition is that it can be used alone on the occasion of question-and-answer. 2. 形容词短语一般直接做谓语,前边 不能加上”是”。
The adjective phrase can function as predicate and can’t preceded by the word 是。 这个也是非常重要。
This is very important. 外国学生啊 经常容易出现这样的错误,就是在形容词前面加上”是”,然后做谓语
Foreign students are more likely to make such a mistake, use 是 before the adjective which acts as predicate. 我们来看一下第①例:A 问:烤鸭好吃吗? 这个问句是没有问题。
Let’s look at the first example: A asked: (is Roast Duck delicious)? This question is right. 但是 B 回答:烤鸭是 好吃。
But B answered: 烤鸭是 好吃(Roast Duck is delicious). 那么”好吃”是个形容词。
So 好吃 is an adjective. 它的前面出现一个”是” 这就错了。
It is preceded by the word 是, this is wrong. 那么也就是说形容词 “好吃”做谓语的时候前边不能有”是”。
So in other words, the adjective 好吃 serving as predicate can’t be preceded by the word 是. 那么正确的说法应该是什么呢?烤鸭好吃 就可以了。
What is the right expression? 烤鸭好吃, that’s OK. 第②例:A 问:这件衣服怎么样?B 回答:这件衣服 是很漂亮。
Second example, A asked, (what about this dress)? B answered, (this dress is very beautiful). “是很漂亮”同样错了 “这件衣服是很漂亮”也不能这么说。
The phrase 是很漂亮 is also incorrect, and we can’t say 这件衣服是很漂亮. 为什么?就是因为多了一个”是” 那么这个把”是”去掉,这个句子就很好。
Why? Because of the redundant word 是, so remove it to make a right sentence. “这件衣服很漂亮” 是正确的用法,所以要特别注意,就是
这件衣服很漂亮 is the right expression, so needs to be paid special attention that 汉语的形容词或者形容词短语的前面不能加上”是” (三)名词或者短语。
adjective or adjective phrase can’t be preceded by the word 是 in Chinese. Part three, noun or noun phrase. 汉语的名词或者短语也可以做谓语。
Chinese noun or noun phrase can also be predicate. 我们来看一下 第一种情况:①明天春节。
Let’s look at the first case, (tomorrow is Spring Festival). “春节”是什么? “春节”是一个名词,也就是我们前面讲过的是
What is the phrase 春节? 春节 is a noun, as we discussed previously, 一个时间的名词,那么来说明什么呢?”明天的”,所以 也是做谓语。
it’s a noun of time, and what does it specify? “明天的”, so it also acts as a predicate. 第②个:五月一号星期天
“星期天”也是一个名词,是个”时间”名词,那来说明什么呢?五月一号
Second, (May 1st is Sunday).
星期天 is also a noun, a noun of time, what does it specify? 五月一号. 所以呢它也是做谓语。
So it’s also a predicate. 第③:他女朋友高高的个儿 长长的头发,这些都是名词短语,”高高的个儿”、
Third, (his girlfriend is tall with long hair), these noun phrases 高高的个儿 and 长长的头发 “长长的头发” 来分别说明”他女朋友”这样一个主语的 所以呢,也是谓语。
describe the subject 他女朋友. So they are predicates. 这也是我们汉语 的名词或者短语啊也是可以做谓语
Our Chinese noun or noun phrase can also be a predicate. 但是应该注意,注意什么问题呢? 就是汉语的名词短语做谓语有一些限制,也就是有一些条件
But what should we pay attention to? There are some limitations when the noun phrases serve as predicate in Chinese. 哪些名词或者短语可以做谓语呢?主要是表示什么呢?
Which nouns or noun phrases can function as the predicate? What do they specify? 时间,这样的名词可以,节令
Time, such nouns like this, season, 就是节气或者是假日啊 这样的情况,节假日,这个季节等等,还有什么呢?天气的
namely solar terms or holiday, such circumstance, holiday, season and so on, what else? Weather 还有籍贯,这样的 一般可以做谓语。
and native place, such nouns can act as predicate. 我们来看一下第①例:昨天星期一。
Let’s look at the first example, (yesterday is Monday). “星期一”是什么? 就是我们说的”时间”,可以。
What is 星期一? It’s a noun of time, OK. 第②个:他北京人,我上海人
那么”北京””上海”都是什么呢?籍贯,也就是说他的出生的地方
Second, (He’s from Beijing, I’m from Shanghai)
What does 北京 and 上海 specify? Native place, place of birth. 所以呢,可以做谓语。
So, it can be a predicate. 第③:今天晴天。
Third, (it’s sunny today). “晴天”是 什么呢?表示什么?天气。
What is 晴天? What does it specify? Weather. 所以呢,”晴天”尽管是个名词也是可以做谓语的 (四)数量(名)。
So, although 晴天 is a noun, it can be predicate. Part four, quantifier(noun)。 数量或者是 数量名也可以做谓语。
Numerals or numeral measure word phrases can also be predicate. 我们来看一下,第①例:现在十一点半 “十一点半”是个数量、
Let’s have a look, first example, (it’s eleven thirty now). 十一点半 is a 数量,那么它来说明 “现在”这个主语,所以是一个谓语。
quantifier, which illustrates the subject 现在, so it’s a predicate. 第②:一天一个苹果 “一个苹果”是个数量名,对不对,那么它来说明什么呢?”一天”
Second, (an apple one day). 一个苹果 is a numeral measure word phrase, right, what does it illustrate? 一天. 所以呢,”一个苹果”也是谓语 第五种情况就是主谓短语。
Therefore, 一个苹果 is also a predicate. Part five, subject-predicate phrase. 主谓短语同样可以做谓语 我们看一下第一个例子。
Subject-predicate phrase can also be predicate, let’s look at the first example. 你头发长了。
(Your hair has grown long). “你”是一个 主语,”头发长了”是什么?是一个小句,也就是说主谓短语
The word 你 is a subject, what is 头发长了? A clause, namely a subject-predicate phrase. 所以呢可以做,说明”你”的,所以是谓语。
So it can be predicate which illustrates the word 你. 第②个:今年雨很多 “雨很多”,这个”雨很多”是什么?也是一个主谓短语
Second, (it rained a lot this year). What is 雨很多? It’s also a subject-predicate phrase. 就是一个小句,所以可以来说明这个”今年”这个主语的 所以这样的也可以,主谓短语可以做
谓语。
Namely it’s a clause, so it illustrates the subject 今年, therefore subject-predicate phrase can be predicate. 二.
Second. 谓语的位置 谓语一般位于主语的后面。
Position of subject. The predicate usually comes after the subject. 也就是主语在前面,谓语在后面 我们来看一下第①个例子。
Namely, the subject precedes the predicate. Let’s look at the first example. 昨天很热。
(It was very hot yesterday). “很热”是个谓语 “昨天”呢是主语,所以呢主语在前,谓语在后。
很热 is a predicate, 昨天 is a subject, so the subject precedes the predicate. 这是汉语的这个 谓语的最常见的位置,或者是常规的位置
In Chinese, this is the most common position of predicate, or the regular position. 但是口语中为了突出或者强调谓语啊
有时呢也把谓语提前,也就是说谓语跑到前面,主语跑到后面去了
But in spoken language, in order to highlight or emphasize the predicate,
sometimes we put the predicate before subject, namely, the the predicate precedes the subject. 我们来看两个例子,第①个:不错,这件衣服
Let’s look at two examples, first, 不错,这件衣服(this clothes is nice). 那么”这件衣服”是什么?”这件衣服”实际上是应该是主语 “不错”呢是谓语。
What is 这件衣服? 这件衣服 actually is a subject, 不错 is a predicate.
92
92
00:07:54,902 –> 00:08:00,179
那么这个句子是什么意思?应该是说这件衣服不错 这件衣服不错。
So what does this sentence mean? It means this clothes is nice.
93
93
00:08:00,179 –> 00:08:07,648
那么为什么跑到 “不错”谓语跑前呢,主语跑到后面呢?我们前面讲了,就是为了突出
强调。
So why does the predicate 不错 precede the subject?
As we discussed previously, in order to highlight and emphasize.
94
94
00:08:07,648 –> 00:08:12,750
强调什么呢?强调就是谓语”不错”,所以呢就把它放到前面去了
What does it emphasize? Emphasize the predicate 不错, so put it at the beginning.
95
95
00:08:12,750 –> 00:08:19,778
第②个:走了吗,那些孩子?”那些孩子” 是什么呢?是主语。
Second, 走了吗,那些孩子(have the children gone)? What is 那些孩子? The subject.
96
96
00:08:19,778 –> 00:08:25,280
“走了”是谓语 那么主语跑到后面,谓语在前面了
走了 is a predicate, so the subject comes after the predicate.
97
97
00:08:25,280 –> 00:08:30,760
那么这个句子意思是什么呢?那些孩子走了吗?应该是这样的,正常的语序
What does this sentence mean? Have the children gone?
98
98
00:08:30,760 –> 00:08:40,180
那么它”走了”跑到”那些孩子”的前面去了 目的是为了突出”走了”,强调”走了”
So 走了 comes before 那些孩子 in order to emphasize 走了, highlight 走了.
99
99
00:08:40,180 –> 00:08:47,600
那么这是汉语这个口语的语法的一个特点,语法的特点
So this is a feature of spoken Chinese grammar.