大家好,欢迎进入对外汉语教学核心语法课堂
Hi,everyone!Welcome to the core grammar class of teaching Chinese as a second language. 今天讲第六讲- 定语和状语 第一节-
Today we begin to study Lecture 6, the attributive and the adverbial adjuncts. Section one, 定语,一,充当定语的成分 用在名词或短语前,起着限制和描写作用的词语
the attributive, part one, elements serving as the subject. A word or phrase which comes
before the verb or verb phrase to restrict or describe the subject 叫做定语,被限制或描写的词语叫做中心语。
is called an attributive, the word modified or described by the attributive is called the head word. 充当定语的词语很多,可以是名词、 代词,也可以是动词(短语)
There are many words serving as the attributive, they can be nouns, pronouns, and verbs or verb phrases, 形容词(短语)、 数词、 数量短语、 主谓短语、 介词短语等。
adjectives or adjective phrases, numerals, numeral-measure word phrases,
subject-predicate phrases, prepositional phrases and so on. (一)名词或者短语 例如,一,我买汉语词典,这个「汉语」就是一个名词做定语。
First, nouns or noun phrases. For example, first, (I bought a Chinese dictionary),
汉语 is a noun which acts as the attributive. 二,这是图书馆的书,「图书馆」也是个名词,所以也是做定语。
Second, (this is a book from the library), 图书馆 is also a noun, so it acts the attributive. 名词做定语有的可以不带「的」,有的则必须带「的」。
When the nouns act as the attributive, some cann’t be followed by 的, and others must. (二)代词 例如 1.
Second, pronouns. For example, 1. 他爸爸是老师。
(his father is a teacher). 这个里面的「他」 就是个代词,那么做定语修饰「爸爸」。
Here 他 is a pronoun, so it acts as the attributive to modify 爸爸. 2.
2. 谁的学习成绩好,谁就去。
(Who gets good grades in school, who will go). 这个「谁」是一个疑问代词,也是做定语
那么代词做定语,有的必须带「的」,有的带不带都可以。
The word 谁 is a interrogative pronoun, it also acts as the attributive.
So when the pronoun serves as the attributive, some of them must be followed by 的, others are optional. (三)形容词或者短语,例如 1.
Third, adjectives or adjective phrases, for example, 1. 绿衣服不好看。
(The green coat doesn’t look good). 这个例子里面的「绿」是个形容词 所以呢修饰这个「衣服」做定语。
The word 绿 in this example is an adjective, so it acts as the attributive to modify 衣服. 2.
2. 他是一个勇敢的人。
(He is a brave man). 这个「勇敢」也是一个形容词 那么也是做「人」的定语。
勇敢 is also an adjective, so it acts the attributive of 人. 单音节形容词做定语一般不带「的」
双音节形容词通常要带「的」,形容词短语做定语则必须带「的」。
The monosyllabic adjective serving as the attributive generally doesn’t take 的,
the double syllable adjective is usually followed by 的,
and the adjective phrase serving as the attributive must be followed by 的. (四)动词或者短语,例如「买的人不多」
这个例子的「买」是个动词,带上「的」以后加做人的定语 2.
Fourth, verbs or verb phrase, for example, (few people buy it).
买 in this example is a verb, it is followed by 的 and acts as the attributive of 人. 2. 这是妈妈织的毛衣。
(This is a sweater made by mom). 这个例子里面的
「妈妈织的」,「妈妈织」是一个动词短语,所以呢带「的」以后做毛衣的定语
In this example, 妈妈织 is a verb phrase, so it is followed by 的 and acts as the attributive of 毛衣. 动词(短语)一般带「的」以后,才可以做定语 (五)数词
The verb (phrase) is usually followed by 的 to act as the attributive. Fifth, numerals. 数量或者数量短语,分数做定语一般要带「的」,例如,我们看一下第一个例子
When the numerals or numeral measure word phrases, fractions act as the attributive,
they are generally followed by 的, for instance, let’s look at the first example, 「百分之十的同学」,这个「百分之十」是一个分数,百分数,所以呢
它带「的」做同学的定语。
(ten percent of the students), this 百分之十 is a fraction, a percentage, so
it is followed by 的 and acts as the attributive of 同学. 2.
2. 这次考试只有百分之九十的 及格率。
(The pass rate of this exam is ninety percent). 这个「百分之九十」也是一个分数,百分数,所以呢它也是做定语 数词、
数量短语经常用来做定语。
This 百分之九十 is also a fraction, a percentage, so it acts as the attributive. Numerals
and numeral measure word phrases are usually used as the attributives. 例如:第一例 我们走了两小时了。
For example, first example, (we have walked for two hours). 这个「两」是个数词,所以呢做「小时」的定语 第二例,妈妈在北京玩了一个星期。
The word 两 is a numeral, so it acts as the attributive of 小时. Second example, 这个「一个」是个数量 短语,那么做「星期」的定语。
The 一个 is a numeral measure word phrase, so it acts as the attributive of 星期. 数量短语做定语一般不带「的」 带「的」呢表示描写。
The numeral measure word phrase serving as the attributive generally doesn’t take 的,
except for the circumstance of description. 例如:我们看一下第一个例子 没有一斤的西瓜,只有五斤的。
For instance, let’s look at the first example, (there is no watermelon weighting one jin, only five jin). 这个「一斤」是什么呢?是 描写西瓜的,也就是说这个西瓜是一斤的,不是五斤的
What is the phrase 一斤? It is used to describe the watermelon, in other words, the watermelon weights one jin, not five jin. 第二例,给我来两条半斤的鲤鱼。
Second example, (bring me two carps of half a kilo). 这个「半斤」也是描写这个 说明这个鲤鱼的,也就是说这个鲤鱼呢是半斤重
The phrase 半斤 is also used to describe the carp, which means the carp weights half a kilo. 数量重叠式有两种情况
There are two case of reduplication of the numeral measure word phrase, 一AA式做定语,可以不带「的」,一A一A式做定语必须带「的」 我们来看两个例子。
the form of 一AA can serve as the attributive without 的, and the 一A一A form
serving as attributive must be followed by 的,
let’s look at two examples. 例如第一例,一座座大楼 拔地而起。
First example, (the skyscrapers rise from the ground). 这个就属于一AA式,那么它做定语的时候呢 后面没有「的」。
This is 一AA form, so it serves as the attributive without 的. 第二例,书架上摆着一本一本 的词典。
Second example, (the dictionaries are on the shelf one by one). 「一本一本」是一个一A一A式的 数量短语,那么它做定语的时候呢,后面有一个「的」
一本一本 is a numeral measure word phrase of 一A一A form, so when it acts as the attributive, it is followed by 的. (六)主谓短语,例如 1.
Sixth, the subject-predicate phrase, for example, 1. 尝尝我做的鱼。
(Try the fish I cooked). 这个例子里面 这个例子里面,「我做」是一个主谓短语,那么他做鱼的定语,后面呢有「的」
In this example, 我做 is a subject-predicate phrase, so it acts as the attributive of 鱼 and is followed by 的. 第二例,天气热的时候我就去游泳。
Second example, (I’ll go to swim during the hot day). 「天气热」也是一个主谓短语 那么做时候的定语,后面有一个「的」
天气热 is also a subject-predicate phrase, so in the case of acting as attributive, it is followed by 的. (七)介词短语 例如,我忘不了大家对我的支持和帮助。
Seventh, the prepositional phrase, for example, (I will never forget the support and help from everyone). 这个例子里面的 「对我的」是一个
In this example, what does 对我的 什么呢?是一个定语,这是一个介词短语,对是个介词
第二例,那位作家写了一本关于鲁迅的书。
act as? It’s a attributive and a prepositional phrase, 对 is a preposition.
Second example, (the writer writes a book about Luxun). 「关于鲁迅」 那么也是一个介词短语,也是呢带「的」以后做定语。
关于鲁迅 is also a prepositional phrase and acts as attributive with 的.

 


二.
Part two, 多项定语的顺序。
Order of multiple attributives. (一)并列关系多项定语的顺序 并列关系多项定语是指呢几个定语地位是平等的
First, order of coordinate multiple attributives. The multiple attributives of coordinate relation
indicate that the status of each attribute is equal, 它们联合起来呢共同修饰或限制同一个中心语 我们来看两个例子,第①例,在我国
they are combined together to modify or restrict the same head word.
Let’s look at two examples, first example, (in our country 城市、 农村的生活条件有很大的差距 “城市”、
the rural and urban has very big disparity in living conditions). 城市 “农村”它们一起做”生活条件”的定语
那么”城市”和”农村”是什么关系呢?是并列关系,也就是说它们的地位是平等的
and 农村 serve as the attributives of 生活条件 together.
What is the relationship between 城市 and 农村? It’s a coordinate relation, namely they are equal. 所以呢这两个定语是并列关系 我们再看第②个例子。
So these two attributives are coordinate relations. Let’s look at the second example. 现在大米、 玉米、 小米的 价格差不多一样多,差不多一样了
(The price of rice, maize and millet is almost exactly the same now), 差不多一样了. 这个例子里面有三个定语——大米、 玉米、 小米。
In this example there are three attributives, 大米、 玉米、 小米。 它们是什么关系呢?它们也是一种并列关系 也就是说它们没有主次之分。
What’s their relationship? It’s also coordinate relation, in other words, there is no primary-secondary relation, 它们是地位是平等的 1.
they are equal. 1. 并列关系多项 定语中的连词。
The conjunctions in the multiple attributives of coordinate relation. 并列关系多项定语如果是名词或者短语 或者是动词或者短语呢,一般在最后两项之间用”和”
If the multiple attributives of coordinate relation are nouns or noun phrases, verbs or verb phrases,
the last two items are generally connected with 和 “或””以及”等连接,那么前几项之间呢用”顿号”隔开 我们来看两个例子。
或, and 以及, so the former items are separated by commas. Let’s look at two examples. 我们看第①例子。
Let’s look at the first example. 今天、 明天 和后天的早饭都在这儿吃。
(We’ll have breakfast here today, tomorrow and the day after tomorrow). 这里边有 “今天”、 “明天”、 “后天”三个定语
Here are 今天, 明天, 后天 three attributes. 所以”今天”和”明天”之间用个”顿号”隔开,最后一项”明天”和”后天”之间用”和”-
连接起来
Therefore 今天 and 明天 are separated by a comma, the last item 明天 and 后天 are connected with 和. 第②例,刮风、 下雨或下雪的时候最好不要骑自行车。
Second example, (you’d better not ride a bicycle when it blows, rains or snows). 那边也有三个定语 “刮风”、 “下雨”、 “下雪”也是三个定语。
There are three attributives, 刮风, 下雨 and 下雪. 那么”刮风”和”下雨”之间用”顿号
隔开,那么最后两项”下雨”和”下雪”之间呢用”或”
So 刮风 and 下雨 are separated by a comma, the last items 下雨 and 下雪 are 连接起来。
connected with 或. 2 并列关系多项定语的顺序。
2 Order of multiple attributives of coordinate relation. 并列关系 多项定语的顺序常常受到逻辑关系的制约 一般情况下,按照下列的顺序排列。
Order of the multiple attributives of coordinate relation is usually restricted by the logical relationship.
In generally, they are arranged according to the following order. (1)先尊后卑。
(1) First is superior and after inferior. 我们来看一下例子 家长、 学生的意见都要重视。
Let’s look at examples. (The opinion of parents and students should all be valued). 这有两个定语,”家长”和”学生”是什么关系呢?是并列关系
那么我们说”家长”在前”学生”在后。
Here are two attributives, what’s the relation between 家长 and 学生? It’s a coordinate relation.
So we say that 家长 comes before 学生. 为什么呢?因为是 “家长”是尊,”学生”是卑。
Why? Because 家长 is superior and 学生 is inferior. 也就是说”家长”是重要的,”学生”是不太重要,次重要的
所以呢是先”家长”后”学生”,它们的排列顺序
In other words, 家长 is important, 学生 is relatively less important.
Therefore 家长 is placed before 学生. 我们再看一个例子,第②个例子,第一名 第二名的水平差距很大。
Let’s see another example, the second example, (there is a large gap between the first and the second). 那么”第一名”和”第二名”也是一个并列关系的一个定语
那么它们的排列顺序先”第一”后”第二”。
So 第一名 and 第二名 are also attributives of coordinate relation,
their order is that 第一 comes first and then 第二. 为什么?”第一”是尊 “第二名”是卑。
Why? 第一 is superior and 第二名 is inferior. 也就是说”第一名”重要,”第二名”呢是 次重要,所以是先”第一名”后”第二名”。
In other words 第一名 is important, 第二名 is less important, therefore 第一名 comes before 第二名. (2)先远后近 例如,第①例,前面是一望无际
(2) First far then near. For instance, first example, (up ahead is prairie that go beyond our sight 风吹草低见牛羊的大草原 那么这是两个定语。
and flocks and herds appear as grass bends to wind), so here are two attributes. “一望无际”、 “风吹草地现牛羊”,那么这是两个并列的定语
一望无际 and 风吹草地现牛羊 are two coordinate attributives. 那么为什么”一望无际”在前”风吹草地见牛羊”在后面呢?就是因为什么呢?
So why does 一望无际 come before 风吹草地见牛羊? What’s the reason? “一望无际”是一种远景;”风吹草地见牛羊”是一种近景,所以呢先远后近
一望无际 is a distant view, and 风吹草地见牛羊 is a close shot, so first far then near. 第②例,东边是一排排低矮、 潮湿的平房
Second example, (on the east there are rows of low-ceilinged and damp houses). 那么”低矮”和”潮湿”也是一个并列关系 它们是两个定语。
So the relation between 低矮 and 潮湿 is also coordinate, they are two attributives. 那么”低矮”在前,”潮湿”在后,为什么呢?
“低矮”是我们远景,在很远地方可能看见的。
Therefore 低矮 comes first, and then 潮湿, why?
低矮 is a distant view, which can be seen from far away. “潮湿”是近景 比如说走到近前,我们才能发现这个潮湿,所以呢也是由远及近这一排列顺序
潮湿 is a close shot, for instance, when we get closer, we can find it damp, so it is from far and near. (3)先外部后内部 我们来看两个例子。
(3) First external then internal. Let’s look at two examples. 第①,哥哥是个英俊 诚实的小伙子。
First, (the elder brother is a handsome and honest young man). “英俊”是个定语,”诚实”也是一个定语。
英俊 is an attributive, 诚实 is also an attributive. 这两个定语 “英俊”在前,”诚实”在后,为什么?就是”英俊”是一种外表
英俊 comes first, then 诚实, why? Because 英俊 describes the appearance, “诚实”是一种内在的一个品质,所以呢我说先外后内
and 诚实 specifies an internal quality, therefore first external then internal. 第②例,她是个美丽大方的南方姑娘。
Second example, (she is a beautiful and generous girl from the south). 这两个 定语也是并列关系。
These two attributives are also coordinate. “美丽”在前,”大方”在后,为什么?”美丽”是一种外表
“大方”是一种内在的品质,所以呢也是先外后内
美丽 comes first, then 大方, why? 美丽 describes the appearance
and 大方 specifies an internal quality, therefore also first external then internal. (4)先主后次 我们来看一下两个例子。
(4) First primary then secondary. Let’s look at two examples. 第①个,要合理安排工作和休息的时间 那么”工作”和”休息”也是两个定语,并列关系。
First example, (we should reasonably arrange work schedule and rest time).
So 工作 and 休息 are two attributives of coordinate relation. 那么 “工作”在前,”休息”在后,为什么呢?”工作”是主,”休息”是次要的
Therefore 工作 comes before 休息, why? 工作 is primary, 休息 is secondary. 第②例,家庭、 单位中的事情都要处理好。
Second example, (the work and family issues should be all dealt well with). “家庭”和”单位” 那么也是一个并列关系。
家庭 and 单位 are also coordinate. 那么”家庭”在前,”单位”在后,为什么呢?”家庭”
重要,”单位”是次重要,所以呢先”家庭”后”单位”
So 家庭 comes before 单位, why? 家庭 is
important, 单位 is less important, therefore first 家庭 then 单位. (5)发生在前的在前,发生在后的在后 我们来看一下例子。
(5) What happened earlier comes first then what happened later. Let’s look at examples. 第①例,吃饭 休息的时间太短。
First example, (the time for dining and resting is too short). 那么”吃饭”和”休息”
我们说”吃饭”在前,”休息”在后,所以呢”吃饭”放在”休息”的前边
So 吃饭 and 休息, 吃饭 happens earlier, and 休息 happens later, therefore 吃饭 is placed before 休息. 第②例,上班、 下班的时候车上人很多。
Second example, (during commutes, there are many people on the bus). “上班”在前,”下班”在后,所以呢
“上班”这两个定语,”上班”和””下班”两个定语,”上班”在前,”下班”在后 3.
上班 happens earlier, 下班 happens later, therefore
the two attributives 上班 and 下班, 上班 comes before 下班. 3. 并列关系多项定语与”的”的问题 并列关系一般最后一项带”的”。
The issue between multiple attributives of coordinate relation and 的.
The last item of the coordinate relation usually takes 的. 我们来看一下例子 第①个例子,我们一定要完成这个光荣 艰巨的任务。
Let’s look at examples, first example, (we are determined to accomplish the glorious and arduous mission). “光荣”和”艰巨”是两个并列的定语
我们看这个”的”呢,在什么地方呢?是在”艰巨的”后面
光荣 and 艰巨 are two attributives of coordinate relation.
We see the word 的, where is it? It’s placed at the end of 艰巨的. 也就是说,并列关系的多项定语,最后一项带个”的”就可以了 ②我们再看一个例子
In other words, the last item of multiple attributives of coordinate relation takes 的.
Let’s look at another example. 艰苦、 紧张的留学生活 就要开始了。
(The difficult and intense life of studying abroad is about to begin). “艰苦”、 “紧张的”也是两个并列关系的定语
艰苦 and 紧张 are also two coordinate attributives. 我们看这个”的”呢,也是放在最后一项这个”紧张”的后面 但是,有时候为了突出定语
We can see the word 的 is also put after the last item 紧张. However, sometimes in order to highlight 或者为了强调定语呀,每项的后面也都可以带”的” 我们来看两个例子。
or emphasize the attributive, each item can be followed by 的. Let’s look at two examples. 第①例,中华民族是一个 勤劳的(有的)、
First example, (the Chinese nation is hardworking, 勇敢的(也有的)、 伟大的 那么这是三个并列关系的定语。
brave and great). So there are three attributives of coordinate relation. 我们看每一项的 后面呢都有一个”的”,那么这么做的目的是什么呢?就是为了突出
We see that each item is followed by 的, so what’s its purpose? In order to highlight “勤劳”,突出、 强调”勇敢”、 强调”伟大”,所以都用”的”
勤劳, highlight and emphasize 勇敢, emphasize 伟大, therefore 的 is used for each item. 再看第②个例子,他是一个聪明的 活泼的孩子。
See the second example, (he is a smart and vivacious child). “聪明的”后面,”活泼的”后面都有”的”,那么这么做的目的呢也是为了
聪明的 and 活泼的 are all followed by 的, the purpose here is also to 突出这个”聪明”,强调这个”活泼”,所以呢每一项后面呢都带了”的”
highlight 聪明 and emphasize 活泼, therefore each item is followed by 的. (二)递加关系多项定语的顺序 递加关系多项定语是指各项定语之间没有直接的关系
Second, order of progressingly increasing multiple attributives. The progressingly increasing multiple attributives
indicate that there is no direct relationship between each attributive, 它们依次修饰后面的成分 递加关系多项定语之间呢不能有停顿 我们来看一下例子。
they in turn modify the elements after it without pause. Let’s look at examples. 第①例,那个 戴眼镜的留学生是哪国人?那么这是两 个定语。
First example, (which country is the foreign student with glasses from)? So there are two attributives. 一个是”那个”,一个是”戴眼镜的”,那么它们的关系就是递加关系
第②例,他借了一本英汉小词典
One is 那个, the other is 戴眼镜的, so they are progressingly increasing.
Second example, (he borrowed a small English-Chinese dictionary). 那么有三个定语,”一本”和”英汉”和”小”,它们都是 递加关系。
There are three attributives, 一本, 英汉 and 小, they are all progressingly increasing. 那么递加关系多项定语的顺序 主要是这样的。
The progressingly increasing multiple attributives are arranged according to the following order. 第 [1] 表示领属关系的名词(短语)或者代词
Fisrt, nouns (phrases) or pronouns representing genitive. 然后是什么呢?表示时间或者表示处所的 下面呢接着是加上指示代词
And what’s next? Words or phrases specifying time or location, then demonstrative pronouns. 第 [4] 表示数量的,第 [5] 主谓短语、 动词(短语)、 介词(短语),第
Fourth, words or phrases specifying quantity, fifth, subject-predicate phrases, verbs (phrases), prepositions (phrases), [6] 形容词(短语),第[7] 不带”的”的形容词或者名词
sixth, adjectives (phrases), seventh, adjectives or nouns without 的. 这是什么意思呢?也就是说 [7] 紧挨着这个中心语
What does this mean? In other words, the seventh word or phrase is next to the head word. 最近,然后依次是形容词 然后是主谓短语、 动词,然后是表示数量的、
And then adjectives, subject-predicate phrases, verbs, words or phrases specifying quantity, 指示代词 也就是说,这个数字越大 离这个中心语越近,是这么个意思。
demonstrative pronouns, in other words, the bigger the number, the closer it gets to the head word 我们来看一下例子就比较清楚了 我们来看一下例①,那一件衣服好看一些。
Let’s look at examples and will make it clear, let’s look at the first example, (that clothes looks better). 我们看 这又两个定语”那”和”一件”,它们来修饰衣服 它们是递加关系。
We see that there are two attributives 那 and 一件, they modify the clothes and they are progressingly increasing. 我们来看”那”是什么呢?那是 [3],也就是说指示代词
What is the word 那? The third item, namely demonstrative pronoun. “一件”是什么呢?是数量短语,所以呢 [3] What is 一件? A numeral measure word phrase, therefore the third item 在 前,”一件”在后,也就是”一件”离衣服更近
comes before 一件, and it’s closer to the clothes. 再看第②个例子,这次旅游花了我家半年的收入
这里面有两个定语,一个是”我家”,一个是”半年”。
Look at the second example, (this travel costs six months of income of our family).
Here are two attributives, one is 我家, the other is 半年. 那么我们说”我家”是什么呢?”我家” 是一个这个处所
So what does 我家 specify? 我家 is a location, 所以”半年”呢是一个数量,所以呢”处所”在前,”数量”在后 那么第③例是,1
月 6 号是去年最冷的一天。
so 半年 is a quantity, therefore 处所 is placed before 数量. The third example,
January 1 is the coldest day in the last year. 这个”去年”是一个什么呢?是一个时间 “最冷”是一个形容词。
What does 去年 specify? Time, 最冷 is an adjective. 这两个定语,一个是时间是 [2],”最冷”是形容词短语,所以呢
These two attributives, one refers to time, 最冷 is an adjective phrase, so 它挨着”一天”,这个是中心语 时间问题,我们就不一一细说了
it’s next to the head word 一天. As a matter of time, we will not elaborate here.