被”字句,又称被动式,是汉语中一种用“被”等介词去引进动作施事的被动式动词谓语句法,句中的主语是动词施动的对象。”被”字句有两种基本形式:

主语+“被”+宾语+动作
主语+“被”+动作

如果句子有宾语的话(即第一种形式),则宾语是施动者。施动者可以是不定指的(即言者、听者都不确定谁是施动者),如果不想强调施动者,甚至可以省略宾语(即第二种形式)。句子中的“被”如果改用“叫”、“让”等词则施事的宾语不能省略。

值得注意的是,汉语中使用“被”字句跟英语中使用被动式是不同的。在英语中,尤其英国传统的英语,使用被动式的主要原因是为了避免提及施事者,这是一种有教养的表现,所以在英语文章中,被动式的句子很普遍,但在汉语中的“被”字句往往是用来表示不如意,不愉快的事情,用“被”字句是不想直接描述带有负面感觉的语义。所以並不普遍。而且汉语的被动式不一定要有标记字如“被”字,例如, “晚饭煮好了。”是被动式,但不含任何被动式介词,亦无负面意义。

近年来,滥用被字句日见明显,是受汉语欧化的影响,尤其大量网上机械化地把英语翻译成汉字,往往将英语的被动式翻译成“被”字句, “被”字句用来表示中性或正面感情色彩的情况日增, 例如, “小明被老师和同学赞许。“,标准的汉语应该是”小明得到老师和同学赞许。“。

应该尽量避免滥用被字句。

用“”字组词句的一些法则 :

  1. “被”字句跟“把”字句是互相对立的两种句式。把字句中的主语是施动者,而在被字句中,主语是受动者。但二者的动词都必须具有“处置”的意义,不过,有些没有“处置”的意义而不能进入“把”字句的动词却能用于“被”字句中。包括表示感觉、认知的动词(如“看见、认为”等),例如, “那个人被公认是恶人的典范。”。
  2. “被”字句中的主语是动作的受事者,一般是名词或者短语。例如, “老鼠快要被花猫吃掉了。”。
  3. ”的宾语 一般是名词或者短语,可以是不定指的,施动的宾语,如果无需强调,可省略,施动者须由“被”字引介,充当其宾语。但是,“被”字也可直接附在动词之前而不引介任何宾语。例如, “老鼠快要被吃掉了。”。老鼠被谁吃掉並不重要。
  4. “被”字句中的还有“让”“给”“遭”“叫”“为……所……”“受”等可以表示被动:例如, “事件已经遭人揭发了” “为势所逼”, “受万人景仰”。
  5. 在“被”字句中的动词不可以有否定词。否定词要置于被之前。例如, “他没被困难吓退。”而不是,“他被困难没吓退。”。
  6. “被”字句中的时间副词(如“已经”)、能愿动词(如“可能”)也须置于动词前。例如, “他已经/可能被传染了。”
  7. “被”字句的结果补语,一般都是表示动作已经成为过去式,所以后面应该加“了”, 例如, “门被风吹开了。”

格式(一) : 主语(受事)+被+宾语(施事)+动词+其他

在动词后面,一定要加其他成分

例句:

  1. 张小雨被爸爸骂了三十分钟。
  2. 窗户让风吹开了。
  3. 老鼠还未被猫吃掉。
  4. 他的钱包可能叫人偷走了。

思考 :

  1. 张小雨被舅舅骂.
  2. 门被风刮开。
  3. 老鼠被猫没发现。
  4. 我的书让偷了。

 

 

 

  1. II. “被”字句。
    Sentence pattern of “bei” “(主语)+被+(宾语) +动词+其他成分”和”(主语)+叫/让+宾语
    Sentences like “(subject) +bei +(object) +verb+ other parts” and “(subject) +jiao/rang+object 动词+其他成分”这样的句子叫做”被”字句 我们看一下例子就比较清楚。
    verb+ other parts are called sentence pattern of “bei”. Let us have a look at some examples to be clear. “书”是主语被弟弟 (被有宾语)弄丢了。
    “shu” bei didi nong diu le” (the book is lost by my brother). 那么这就是一个”被”字句 第②例,”玻璃”是一个主语,叫台风 刮掉了。
    This is a sentence pattern of “bei”. Example two, “bo li jiao tai feng gua diao le”. (The glass was blown off by the typhoon). 那么这个是什么呢?也是属于”被”字句。
    What is it? It is also a sentence pattern of “bei”. 我们用,它用的是什么呢?叫 但是也是有”被”的意思,”被”的意思。
    The “jiao” is used here. Sometimes, it has the same meaning with “bei”. (一) “被”的宾语。
    (I) Objects of “bei” “被”的宾语一般是名词短语,可以是已知的,也可以是未知的 这个和”把”字句不一样。
    The object of “bei” is noun phrase in general. It can be known or not. This is different from the sentence pattern of “ba”. “把”字句是已知的,但是”被”字句可以是未知的。
    Sentence pattern of “ba” is known. However, sentence pattern of “bei” can be unknown. 也就是说没有关系 是不是说话人、 听话人都知道的人是没有关系。
    That is to say, it is alright whether the speaker and listener know or not. 我们看例① 书被我还了。
    Let us see the first example, “shu bei wo huan le” (the book was returned by me). 这个宾语 这个”我”是什么呢?已知的。
    What is the object, “wo”? it is known. 就是说话人和听话人都知道这个”我”是谁 第②例,词典被人拿走了 词典被人拿走了。
    The speaker and listener know who the “wo” is. The second example, “ci dian bei ren na zou le”. (the dictionary was taken by others.) 那么,说话人和听话人都不知道这个人
    是什么人,所以呢它是一种什么呢?未知的,未知的情况
    The speaker and listeners do not know this people mention here. therefore, It is unknown. 注意:”被”和”叫””让”
    Pay attention: “bei”, “jiao” and “rang” 都表示被动,但是”被”的宾语,注意”被”的 宾语可以省略。
    are passive. The object of “bei” can be omitted. 所谓可以省略是什么意思呢?就是可以不说,不说出来
    What does this mean? It means that the object of “bei” can be chose to not be said. 但是”叫””让”的宾语在任何情况下都不能省略
    However, the objects of “jiao” and “rang” cannot be omitted. 也就是说”叫”和”让”后面的这个宾语啊
    In other words, the objects of “jiao” and “rang” 都必须说出来,否则的话都是错了 我们看第①个例子。
    shall be said. Otherwise, the expression will be wrong. Let us have a look at the first example. 相机被弟弟弄坏了。
    “xiang ji bei di di nong huai le.” (The camera was broken by my brother.) “弟弟”是个宾语 我们也可以说相机被弄坏了,就是没有弟弟
    The “di di” (brother) is an object. We can also say that “xing ji bei nong huai le.” (the camera was broken.) 这个句子也是可以的,当然,意思不同 第②例,相机叫弟弟弄坏了,或者相机让弟弟弄坏了。
    This sentence is also okay. Certainly, they have different meanings. The second example, “xiang ji jiao di di nong huai le.” Or “xiang ji rang di di nong huai le.” 这个”弟弟”是什么呢? 是”叫””让”的宾语,但是这个”弟弟”不能不说出来
    What is the “di di” here? the object of “jiao” and “rang”. The “di di” here cannot be omitted. 就是一定要有这个弟弟,否则的话这个句子就是错误的句子 (二)”被”字句的谓语动词
    Otherwise, this sentence will be wrong. (II) Predicate verbs of sentence pattern of “bei” “被”字句的谓语动词必须是及物动词。
    Predicate verbs of sentence pattern of “bei” shall be transitive verbs. 所谓及物动词是什么意思?前面我们说
    “把”字句的时候已经讲了,就是说必须有可以带名词性的宾语。
    What does transitive verb mean? It was mentioned
    in the sentence pattern of “ba”. There shall have noun objects 而且 或者前边出现状语,或者是后边带上补语、
    And there shall have adverbials before it or complement, 宾语、 动态助词 也就是说什么呢?不能只是一个光杆动词
    object and dynamic auxiliary word after it. That is to say, it cannot be used individually. 也就是说它的谓语动词和”把”字句的谓语动词的 要求、 条件是一样的。
    The requirements and conditions of its predicate verb are the same as sentence pattern of “ba”. 我们来看一下例子就比较清楚。
    Some examples make you clear. 我们看第①个例子。
    The first one 窗户 被关上了,所以教师里很热。
    “chuang hu bei guan shang le, suo yi jiao shi li hen re.” (it is very hot in the classroom because the window is closed). 而”关” 是个动词,那么我们看”关”的后面还有什么呢?有”上”
    The “guan” (close) is a verb. What is it after “guan”? it is “shang”. 也就是说补语,那么还有什么呢?”了”
    是什么呢?动态助词,也就是说窗户被关上了是可以的
    The complement. What else? “le”
    The “le” is dynamic auxiliary word. The sentence of “chuang hu bei guan shang le” is ok. 窗户被关,那么这个句子一般是不能说的 我们看第②个例子。
    “chuang hu bei guan” is a wrong expression. Example two, 饺子被吃光了。
    “jiao zi bei chi guang le.” (the dumplings were ate out). “吃”是个动词 后面有”光”。
    The “chi” is a verb followed by “guang”. “光”是什么?是个补语
    “了”是什么?”了”是动态助词,所以这个句子就是一个好的句子,是一个正确的句子
    What is “guang”? it is a complement.
    What is “le”? it is a dynamic auxiliary word. The sentence above is correct. 换句话说,饺子被吃。
    “jiao zi bei chi.” 这样的句子没有”光”,没有”了”的时候,这个句子就错了 所以呢要特别地注意。
    When there are no “guang” and “le”, this sentence will be wrong. Please pay close attention to it. 下面应该注意的是什么呢? “被”字句中动态助词”了””过”可以出现
    在动词后面,但是呢”着”不行。
    What shall be noted in the next? Dynamic auxiliary words of “le” and “guo” in the sentence pattern of “bei” can be placed after a verb. However, the word of “zhe” cannot be used like this. 也就是说动态助词”了” “过”可以出现在动词的后面,但是”着”
    Dynamic auxiliary words of “le” and “guo” in the sentence pattern of “bei” can be placed after a verb. However, the word of “zhe” 不可以、 不能出现在动词的后面。
    cannot be placed after a verb. 我们看一下例子就比较清楚。
    Some examples make you clear. 他被 或者叫、 让别人骗了。
    “ta bei or jiao or rang bie ren pian le.” (He was treated by others.) 有个”了”,对不对? 他被别人骗了,他叫别人骗了,他让别人骗过,”过”是可以的
    There is a “le”, right? “ta bei bie ren pian le, ta jiao bie ren pian le, ta rang bie ren pian guo.” A “guo” used here is ok. 但是不可以说”骗着”,那是不行的
    However, the usage of “pian zhe” is wrong. (2)带可能补语的动词短语 不能做”被”字句的谓语动词。
    (2) Verb phrases with possible complements Predicate verbs that cannot be used as sentence pattern of “bei”. 这个是什么意思呢?我们看一下例句就比较清楚 这些啤酒被我喝得完。
    What does this mean? Let us see some examples. “zhe xie pi jiu bei wo he de wan.” “喝得完”是什么? “喝得完”就是一个可能的补语
    What is “he de wan”? it is a possible complement. “喝得完”是能喝完的意思,是可能补语。
    “he de wan” means “neng he wan”. It is a possible complement. 那么这个句子就错了 也就是说”喝得完”不可以放在”被我”的后面 做谓语,谓语动词。
    And then this sentence will be wrong. That is to say, “he de wan” shall not be placed after “bei wo” to be a predicate. 那么应该怎么说呢?应该说这些啤酒 能被我喝完。
    What is the right expression? “zhe xie pi jiu neng bei wo he wan.”(These beers can be drunk out by me). 这样这个句子就对了,是一个正确的句子 第②例,这些饺子被我们吃得完
    Then this sentence will be right. Example two, “zhe xie jiao zi bei wo men chi de wan.” “吃得完”是什么?也是可能补语,所以这个句子呢也是错
    那么正确的是应该说什么呢?这些饺子能
    What is “chi de wan”? it is also a possible complement, so this sentence is also wrong.
    What is the correct expression? “zhe xie jiao zi neng…”, 用”能”,”被”的前边加上”能”,后面用什么呢?”吃完”
    这些饺子能被我们吃完,就是一个非常好的句子
    Add a “neng” before “bei”. What is the end? “chi wan”
    “zhe xie jiao zi neng bei wo men chi wan” (these dumplings can be ate up by us) is a good sentence. (三)新的”被”字句 近些年”被”字句出现了一些新的用法。
    (III) New sentence pattern of “bei” In recent years, there are some new usages in the sentence pattern of “bei”. 也就是过去没有的用法 我们来一下例子。
    They were not appeared in the past. Let us see some examples. 第①个,我被提拔了 “被提拔”什么意思呢?不是真的被提拔
    The first one, “wo bei ti ba le”. What does “bei ti ba” mean? It is not real. 是说不是真事,是一种假的消息 不是一种真实的情况。
    It is false news. It is not the real situation. 第②例,我们被捐款 捐款是好事情,是一种自愿的行动
    Example two, “wo men bei juan kuan.” “juan kuan” (donation) is a good thing and voluntary deed. 但是呢在这,我们被捐款是什么意思呢?就是说我没有捐款 我们没有捐款,但是被别人说
    我们捐款了。
    However, what does the “wo men bei juan kuan” mean here? That is to say that we did not make donation. However, someone else said that we made donation. 也就是说是一种不实,不实的情况 第③例。
    It means that it is a false news. Example three, 那个女演员被结婚 什么意思呢?也就是说那个女演员不是真的
    “na gen nv yan yuan bei jie hun.” What does this mean? It means that the actress did not marry. 结婚了,而是传说,被,是谣言 说她已经结婚了,是一种虚假的情况,所以呢这也是一种新的
    It is a rumor. Therefore, this is also a new usage of 用法,”被”字句的用法,那么过去是没有这样的说法,现在是比较流行的说法
    sentence pattern of “bei”, which did not appear in the past. It is a popular expression of Chinese now. 那么新的”被”字句中动词有什么特点呢? 我们来看一下。
    What are the characters of verbs in the new sentence pattern of “bei”? Let us took a look. 跟的动词我们说可以是及物动词 这是”被”字句的基本要求。
    Verbs in the sentence pattern of “bei” are transitive verbs, which is the basic requirements of it. 例如说”提拔、 热爱 同意、 代表”,这些都是及物。
    For example: “ti ba,” “re ai,” “tong yi, “and “dai biao” are transitive verbs. 所谓及物就是可以带这个 动词,这个名词性的宾语的,所以是及物,但是也可以是
    不及物动词。
    Transitive verbs can be followed by objects or intransitive verbs 所谓不及物动词呢就是不可以带 这个名词性的宾语,比如说”结婚
    The so-called intransitive verbs cannot be followed by objects. Such as: “jie hun”, 自愿、 中奖、 就业”等等,还可以是什么呢?形容词
    “zo yuan”, “zhong jiang”, “jiu ye” and so forth. What else it can be? Adjectives 我们说这个”被”字句里面不可以是形容词的,但是呢新的”被”字句里面这个形容词也可以
    这么说。
    Adjectives are not used in the old sentence pattern of “bei”. However, they can be used in the new sentence. 比如说”被小康、 被和谐、 富裕、 开心、
    For instance, “bei xiao kang”, “bei he xie”, “bei fu yu, kai xin, 时尚” 所以呢这个”被”字句,这个新的”被”字句,也就是说新的”被”字句的这个动词
    Shi shang” and so foth. Therefore, the restriction of new sentence pattern of “bei” 它的限制比较少,比较开放,比较开放
    is less than the old one. The new expression is open.