大家好,欢迎进入对外汉语教学核心语法课堂 今天我们讲第三讲,副词、
Hi,everyone!Welcome to the core grammar class of teaching Chinese as a second language.
Today we will learn Lecture Three Adverb, 介词和连词 第一节,副词。
Preposition and conjunction Section one, adverb 一.
First, 副词的类别和作用。
Type and role of adverb (一)副词的类别 主要用在动词或动词短语、
(I)Type of adverb The word or phrase that is placed before verbs or verb phrases, 形容词或形容词短语前边, 起着修饰、
adjective or adjective phrases to modify or 限定作用的词叫做副词, 副词可以按照意义分为八类。
To define them is called an adverb. Adverbs, according to its meaning, can be divided into eight types 1.
1. 时间副词, 表示动作或事件发生的时间的副词
Adverb of time Adverbs that are used to indicate the time when an act or event happens 叫做时间副词,像”已经 正、 立刻、 马上、
is called adverbs of time, such as “already, now, immediately, right now, 刚、 一向、 偶尔”等 例如:①这里危险,请大家马上离开这里!
Just, always, occasionally” etc. For example, ①Tt is dangerous here. Please leave here right now! 这个例子中的”马上”就是一个时间副词 ②爸爸一向不喝酒、 不抽烟。
“Right now” in the example above is an adverb of time. ②My dad never drink or smokes. 这个里面的”一向” 也是一个时间副词。
In this sentence, the phrase “yi xiang(never)“ is also an adverb of time. 2.
2. 语气副词,表示对动作或事件的评价
modal adverb Adverbs that express comments on or attitudes towards an action or event 或态度的副词呢叫做语气副词,像”难道,到底 究竟、
is called modal adverbs, such as “isn’t it, on earth, at all 果然、 反正、 幸亏、 偏偏”等
sure enough, anyway, fortunately, unluckily” etc. 例如:①你难道不知道明天考试吗?这一例中的”难道” 就是一个语气副词。
For example, ①Don’t you know that there will be a test tomorrow? In this sentence, “nan dao (don’t) ” is a modal adverb. ② 反正现在没事,我们一起去逛商店吧
② Anyway, as we have nothing to engage. How about shopping around? 这个例子中的”反正”也是这个语气副词 3.
Again, in this sentence, the word “fang zheng(anyway)” is a modal adverb. 3. 方式副词。
adverb of manner 表示行为动作的 方式的副词叫做方式副词,像”一块儿 一起、 逐步、 互相”等。
Adverbs that represent manners of acts or behaviors is called adverbs of manner, such as “together, ,zu gradually, each other” and so on. 例如:① 同学们的汉语水平在逐步提高。
For example, ①The students’ Chinese is improving gradually. 这个里边的”逐步”就是一个方式副词
In this sentence, the word “zhu bu(gradually)” is an adverb of manner. 第②个例子:大家应该互相帮助,这个”互相”也是表示一种方式。
Example ②, everybody should help each other. The phrase “hu xiang(each other)” also indicates a manner. 也就是说表示 这个帮助的一种方式,所以呢,也是一个方式副词。
That is to say, the way of help, so it is also an adverb of manner. 4.
4. 范围副词。
adverb of scope 用来限制跟动作相关的名词或者短语
The adverb that is used to define numbers or scopes of subject of a noun or phrase indicating an action 所指称的对象的数量、 范围的副词叫做范围副词。
is called an adverb of scope, 像”都、 全、 只、 凡是、 大多、 仅仅”等。
such as “all, entirely, only, any, most, merely” etc. 例如:①大家都会游泳。
For example, ①All people can swim. 这个例子中的”都”就是一个 范围副词。
In this example, the word “dou(all)” is an adverb of scope. 第②例中的:凡是 吃过的菜就不要再点了。
Example②, Don’t order any cuisine that you have tried. 这个”凡是”也是表示一个范围,所以呢也是一个范围副词 5.
Still, the word “any” represents a scope, that is to say, it is also an adverb of scope. 5. 程度副词。
adverb of degree 表示性质高低的副词 叫做程度副词,像”很、
Adverb that indicates the degree of a nature is called an adverb of degree, such as “very, 非常、 太、 十分、 格外 最、 比较、 稍微”等。
extremely, too, completely, especially, most, relatively, slightly”etc. 例如第①例:今天考完了,大家 很高兴。
Example ①, after finishing the exam today, everybody is very happy. 这个”很”就是一个程度副词,表示高兴的程度。
The word “hen(very)” is an adverb of degree to show how happy they are. 第②个例子:今天太热了。
Example②, Today is too hot. 这个”太”也是一个程度副词,表示热的程度很高。
The word “tai(too)” is an adverb of degree to show how hot it is. 6.
6. 重复副词 表示动作重复或发生的频率的副词叫做
frequency adverb The adverb that indicates how frequently an act repeats or happens 重复副词,像”常、 常常、 重新、 往往、 又、 再”等。
is called frequency adverbs, such as “often, again, usually, also, once more” etc. 例如第①个例子:那个学生常常不来上课。
For example, ①That student often skip class. 这个 “常常”表示这个不来上课的频率比较多。
The word “chang chang(often)” indicates that the frequency of class skipping is really high. 第②例子 请你重新写一下。
Example②, Please write again. 这个”重新”呢也是一个重复副词。
The word “chong xin(again)” is also a frequency adverb. 7.
7. 否定副词 表示否定的副词叫做否定副词,
Negative adverbs The adverb that indicates negative meaning is called a negative adverb. 否定副词主要有”不、 没(有)、 别、 不要、 甭” 等。
Negative adverbs mainly include “no, none, not, don’t,” etc. 例如:不会没关系,可以问老师。
For example, It’s okay if you don’t understand. You can ask your teacher. 这里边这个”不会” 这个”不”就是一个否定副词。
In this sentence, the word “bu(don’t)” is a negative adverb. 第②例子:别喝了! 你都快醉了!这个”别”同样是一个否定副词。
Example②: You should not drink any more. You are almost drunk. The word “bie(not)” is also a negative adverb. 第③例:考试的时候不要紧张!这个”不要” 也是一个否定副词。
Example③: Don’t be nervous when taking the exam. The word “bu yao(don’t) is also a negative adverb. 8.
8. 关联副词。
correlative adverb 在句子中起着连接作用的副词呢叫做关联副词 关联副词主要有”就、 便、 也、 却”等。
Adverbs that play a related role in a sentence are correlative adverbs, mainly including “as soon as, then, either, but” etc. 例如: 第①例我们看一下:他们吃完饭就走了。
Let us see the example. ①: They leaved after finishing dinner. 这个 “就”连接的是什么呢?”他们吃完饭”和”走”,所以是一个呢 我们叫关联副词。
What does the word of “jiu(as soon as)” connect? It connects “finishing dinner” and “leaved”, so we called the word correlative adverb. 第②例:你不去,我也不去。
Example②, If you don’t go, I won’t, either. 这是用”也”呢把”你不去”和 “我也不去”这两个分句连接起来,所以呢也是一个关联副词
The word “ye(either)” connects two clauses, “if you don’t go” and I” I won’t, either”. So it is also a correlative adverb. (二)副词及”副词+动词(短语) /形容词(短语)”的这个作用。
(II)the role of adverbs and “adverb + verb(phrase) / adjective(phrase)” 1.
1. 副词的作用 (1)作状语。
The role of adverbs (1) used as adverbial modifiers 副词主要的功能呢是作状语
The main role of adverb is to be used as adverbial modifiers.
Let us look example①: It is too much! Too much! The word “tai(too)” is an adverbial modifier. 第②例子:你怎么又来了?这个”又”也是一个状语
Example②, why are you here again? The word “you(again)” is also an adverbial modifier. 副词作状语带”地”问题,
Issues of adverbs with the word “De(-ly)” when used as adverbial modifiers 副词作状语啊,有的可以带”地”,有的呢”不能”。
When adverbs are used as adverbial modifiers, some can work with the word “De(-ly)” while others can’t. 那么具体情况如下 第一种情况:单音节副词做状语不带”地”。
To be specific, firstly, monosyllabic adjectives used as adverbial modifiers without “De (-ly)” 所谓”单音节”就是一个汉字 这样的副词,那么做状语时候呢是不带”地”。
What is called monosyllabic is a Chinese word. Such adverbs are not added with “De(-ly)” when used as adverbial modifiers. 我们看第①个例子:我没听懂,你再说一遍。
Let us turn to example①, I don’t get it. Please say again. 这个”再” 是一个副词,那么做状语的时候,后面不能用”地”。
The word “zai(again) is an adverb. There is no “De” after it when it is used as adverbial modifier. 第②例:妈妈下班刚回来。
Example②, My mom just get home from work. “刚”也是一个副词,那么后面也是不可以用”地”的, 都是单音节一个汉字。
The word “gang(just)” is also an adverb and it is okay to delete the word of“De”. They are both monosyllabic, only one Chinese word. (2) 双音节副词绝大多数不能带”地”
(2) Most double syllable adverbs shall not be added with “De (-ly)” 例如:我们看一下第①例:我曾经来过一次中国, 这是第二次。
Let’s look at example①: I have been to China once and this is the second time. 而”曾经”是个双音节,但是我们说”曾经”的后面也不用”得”。
“Ceng jing(once)” is a double syllable, and we don’t add “De” after “ceng jing” 第②例:明天也许下雨。
Example②: It may be raining tomorrow. 这个”也许”也是一个状语,是个副词。
Here, the word “may” is an adverbial modifier, an adverb. 那么,这个也许的后面呢 也不带”地”。
Therefore, the word “ye xv(may)” is not followed by “De”. 有些双音节副词带不带”地”都可以。
It is okay for some double syllable adverbs whether there is “De” after them or not. 例如:我们看一下第①个例子:他偷偷(地)出去了。
Let’s look at example①: he went out secretly. “偷偷”是一个双音节,但是我们后面我们可以说有”地”
“tou tou(secretly)” is syllable, so we can add “De” to it or not. That is to say, we can also say that he tou tou ((secretly) went out. 也可以说他偷偷地出去了。
Or he tou tou de(secretly) went out. 这两个句子都是可以的。
Both are ok. 第②例我们再看一下:我渐渐(地)习惯了北京的生活。
Let’s turn to example②: I gradually get accustomed to lives in Beijing. 那么这个”渐渐”双音节 我们看后面可以有一个”地” 也可以没有”地”。
It is okay to add “De” to the double syllable “jian jian(gradually) or not. 两个说法都可以。
Both are okay. 可以说”我们渐渐习惯了 北京的生活”,那么也可以说”我们渐渐地习惯了北京的生活”
We can say “We jian jian get accustomed to lives in Beijing” or “We jian jian de get accustomed to lives in Beijing”. 那么第③个例子情况差不多,所以我们就不重复了。
Then example③ is similar, so we will skip it. 这样的副词主要有什么呢?主要有下面这些,就是”不断、 分别、 极力 渐渐、
Are there any other similar adverbs? It can be listed as follows: “constantly, respectively, strongly, gradually, 默默、 悄悄、 随意、 偷偷 逐渐、 尽快、 偶尔、 永远、
Silently, quietly, randomly, secretly, gradually, as soon as, sometimes, forever, 非常、 更加、 稍微、 十分、 特别 多么、 反复”等。
Very, more, slightly, completely, especially, how, over and over again” etc. 这样的双音节副词,它们可以带”地”也可以不带”地”,就是做状语的时候
Double syllable adverbs like these can be added with “De” or not. When it is used as adverbial modifiers, 应该注意的是:就是带不带”地”意思呢,稍有不同
we should pay attention that meanings may differ slightly with “De” after it or not. 带”地”有突出副词的作用,不带”地”没有这样的作用。
The words followed by “De” can highlight an adverb while words without “De” can’t. 我们来看一下例子 就比较清楚了。
Let us have a look at some examples to make it clear. 我们看一下,这个例子:那天雨特别大。
Look at this one: It rained extremely(te bie) heavily that day. “特别” 做状语,那么后面是没有”地”的。
The word “te bie(extremely)” is used as an adverbial modifier without “De” after it. 第②个:那天雨特别地大。
Example②: It rained extremely(te bie de) heavily that day. 这个后面有一个 有一个”地”。
In this sentence, there is a “De” after the word “te bie(extremely)”. 那么这两个的句子的,它的差别在什么地方呢?
So what’s the difference of these two sentences?
The second sentence highlights 副词状语”特别”的意思,所以呢它们意思上还是有一点细微的差别。
the meaning of the adverb “te bie(extremely)”, so there is a little difference between them in meaning. (2)做补语。
(2)used as complement 例如:那儿的东西贵极了。
For example, goods there are extremely expensive. 这个 “极”是一个副词,放在”贵”的后面做补语。
The word “ji(extremely)” is an adverb, placed after “gui(expensive)” as complement. 第②个:饺子好吃得很。
Example②, dumplings are quite delicious. 这个很呢也是一个补语,在”得”的后面做补语。
The word “hen(quite)” is also a complement, placed after the word “De”. (3)单独使用 会话中,少数副词可以单独使用,
(3)used independently In a conversation, a minority of adverbs can be used independently. 也就是说可以单独成为一个句子。
That is to say, they can make up a sentence independently. 这样的副词 不太多,主要有”大概、 不、 没(有)、
Such kind of adverbs are rarely seen, mainly including “probably, no, none, 差不多 当然、 赶快、 果然、 立刻、 马上、 也许、 一起”等。
almost, certainly, quickly, really, immediately, at once, maybe, together”. 我们来看一下例子就是比较清楚了。
Let us have a look at some examples to make it clear. 我们看第①个例子, A 说什么呢?你哥哥回来了吗?B
回答说:没有 这个”没有”是一个副词。
Let’s look at example①, A says: Did your brother come back? B
answers: No. The word “No” is an adverb. 那么,单独用来回答问题,所以可以说是一个句子。
It is used to answer a question independently, so we can also say that it is a sentence. 第②例:A:作业做完了吗?B 回答:差不多。
Example②: A:Did you finish your homework? B answered: Almost. 差不多也是 一个副词,所以呢在这儿呢也是单独作为一个句子来回答问题。
“Almost” is an adverb, so it can be used as a sentence independently to answer questions. 2.
2. “副词+动词(短语) /形容词(短语)”,它的作用是什么呢?主要有以下的一些作用
What’s the role of “adv. + v.(phrase) / adj.(phrase)”? Mainly listed as follows (1)就是”副词+动词(短语)/形容词 (短语)”一般呢是做谓语。
(1)“adv.+v.(phrase)/adj.(phrase)” is generally used as predicates. 这个是它的最常见的一种 作用。
This is the most common role. 我们看一下:这几天老下雨,老下雨,”老”是个副词
Let us have a look: It rains frequently these days. The word “lao(frequently)” is an adverb. 加上动词,所以呢,它们一起做一个谓语, 真烦人。
When it is added with a verb, they can work as predicates together. So annoying. 第②个:这么便宜,咱们多买一点儿吧。
Example②: So cheap, let’s take a little more. “多”是个副词, “买一点儿”是个动词短语,所以呢,它们一起也是做一个谓语。
“duo(more)” is an adverb. “Mai duo yi dian er(take a little more)” is a verb phrase. So, they can work as predicates together. (2)大部分呢 也可以做定语、 宾语或者是主语。
(2)Mostly, “adv. +v.(phrase) / adj.(phrase)” can be used as attributives, objects and subjects. 例如:我们来看一下,第①个例子: 那个学生是刚来的新学生。
Let us look at example①: That is a new student who has just come. “刚”加上来是一个副词 加上一个动词,所以呢它们一起做定语。
“gang(just)” plus “lai(come)”, added with a verb, works as attributives. 第②个:我们希望马上解决 “马上”是个副词,”解决”是个动词。
Example②: We hope to solve it right now. “ma shang(right now)” is an adverb and “solve” is a verb. 那么,它们一起是做什么呢? 做”希望”的宾语。
So, what’s the role of them? Act as the object of “hope”. 第③例:不去也没关系。
Example③: It’s okay if you don’t go. 这个”不”是个副词 “去”是动词,”不去”呢一起是做什么呢?主语,做 主语。
The word “bu(not)” is an adverb and “qu(go)” is a verb. What does the combination of “not go” do? Act as the subject. 应该注意的就是副词,有 一些副词,像”真、 的确、 实在、
We should pay attention that when some adverbs like “truly, indeed, honestly, 果然、 确实、 别、 甭、 不要”
等组成的”副词+动词(短语)/形容词(短语)” 那么不能做定语。
really, surely, not, don’t” make up the structure of “adv.+v.(phrase)/adj.(phrase)”, it cannot be used as attributives. 这个要引起大家的注意。
We should pay attention to it. 就是外国学生很容易错。
Foreign students often make mistakes here. 比如说我们看下面的例子,第①例:西湖是一个真美丽的湖。
Let’s look at example①: West Lake is really a beautiful lake. 那么”真”是一个副词,”美丽”是个形容词,
“是一个”,它修饰一个形容词,但是呢,它做了”湖”的 这个名词的定语。
The word “zhen(really)” is an adverb. “Piao liang(beautiful)” is an adjective.
“Is a” modifies an adjective. However, it acts as the attributive of the noun “lake”. 那么这个句子是错误的。
So this sentence is wrong. 不能这样说 那么,应该说什么呢?应该说”西湖是一个美丽的湖”。
We can’t say that. What should you say? We should say “West Lake is a beautiful lake.” 也就是说,不能用”真”修饰形容词,然后做定语。
That is to say, “Zhen(really)” can’t be used to modify an adjective and then act as an attributive. 第②例:这儿是别抽烟的地方。
Example②: This place is for not smoking. “别”是个副词,”抽烟”是个动词, 那么它们共同组成副词加上动词的短语,
“Bie(not)” is an adverb while “chou yan(smoke)” is a verb. They make up a phrase of “adverb plus verb”, but they act as attributive. Therefore, this sentence is wrong. 那么,应该说什么呢?这儿不是抽烟的地方。
So, What should we say? This is not a place for smoking. 也就是说 “别”+动词(短语)以后呢不能做定语,不能做定语。
That is to say, “bie(not) + verb(phrase)” can’t be used as attributive.




II. 副词在句中的位置和共现顺序 (一)副词的位置。
Position of an adverb in a sentence and their orders when used together
(I) position of an adverb 1.
1. 副词一般是 位于谓语动词前,例如,我们来看一下 ①我已经学了三课了,他们只学了一课。
Adverbs are generally placed before predicate verbs. For example, let us have a look. ①I have already learned three lessons while they have only one. 这个”已经”这个副词,他们,他在什么呢
动词”学”的前边,”只”也是一个副词,它也在动词 “学”的前面。
The word “yi jing(already)” is an adverb. Where is the word “they”?
Before the verb “xue(learn)” and the adverb “only” is placed before the verb “xue(learn)”. 第二例,你赶快回去吧,”赶快”是个副词 那么在动词”回去”的前面。
Example two, go back quickly. “gankuai(quickly)” is an adverb, before the verb “hui qu(go back)”. 你妈妈到处找你 到处也是一个副词,那么在动词短语”找你”的前面
Your mother is looking for you everywhere. “Dao chu(everywhere)” is an adverb, before the verb phrase “zhao ni(looking for you)”. 这个副词在谓语动词前,是最常见的一个位置 2.
The adverb is placed before the predicate verb, a commonly seen position. 2. 有些语气副词位于主语前、 后呢都可以 我们来看一下例子。
Some modal adverbs can be placed before or after subjects. Let me show you some examples. 第一个,他结没 结婚,的确我不知道。
The first one, indeed I don’t know whether he has got married. 这个”的确”是个语气副词,我们看在 主语我的前面,也就是说”的确”放在主语的
The word “di que(indeed)” is a modal adverb which is placed “I”. That is to say, it is placed before the subject. 前面了,下面一个例子,他结没结婚,我的确 不知道。
Next example, I indeed don’t know whether he has got married. 那么这个”的确”又跑到主语呢我的后面来了,也就在
The word “di que(indeed)” now is after the subject “I”, right 谓语动词的前面,也就是说在谓语动词前面或者是主语的前面呢 都可以。
before the predicate verb. That is to say, it is okay to be put whether before predicate verb or subject. 第二例,天气预报说今天有雨,果然 今天有雨。
Example two, the weather report says that it is raining today. Sure enough, it rains today. 那么果然就是一个语气副词,所以放在主语今天的前面了
“Guo ran(sure enough)” is a modal adverb, so it is placed before the subject.
The next example, the weather report says that it is raining today. It sure enough rains today. 而”果然”又跑到”今天”的后面来了,也就放在
The word “guo ran(sure enough)” is after the word “today”, right
before the verb “rained”. Both situations are ok. 都是没有问题的。
Both is ok. 3.主语 为疑问代词的时候,语气副词一般在主语前
3. When the subject is interrogative pronouns, modal adverb is generally placed before subject. 我们看一下例子,第一例:到底谁没交钱?这个到底是是一个什么呢?
Let us have a look at some examples. The first one, on earth who didn’t pay. What’s the role of “dao di(on earth)”. 是一个语气副词,表示语气的,那么它在
It is a modal adverb indicating modal. So which is the subject in this sentence?
It is an interrogative pronoun. So, “dao di(on earth)” is placed before “shui(who)”.. 第二例,其实谁都知道这是怎么回事,那么这个谁也是一个疑问代词,所以呢其实呢
Example two, actually, everybody knows what’s going on. The word “shui(everybody)” is an interrogative pronoun. So the word “actually” 也放在谁的前面。
is placed before “shui(everybody)”. 4.
4. “凡”,”凡是” 只能在主语前,这两个副词呢是一个特例
Words like “fan(every)” “fan shi(all)” can only be placed before the subject. These two adverbs are the exception. 也就是说,我们来看一下例子啊。
Let us have a look at some examples . 凡去过这个地方的这个”凡” 放在”去过这个地方的”,这是主语 所以呢放在主语的前面。
The word “fan(every)” in the phrase ”every place we have been” is placed before “place we have been” which is a subject. Therefore, the word “fan(every)” is placed before the subject. 凡是大学生 大学生是主语,那么”凡”是呢放在
All college students. “College students” is the subject. The word “fan shi(all)” is placed 主语”大学生”的前面,也就是说他们是,位置是固定的 只能放在这个主语的前面 5.
before the subject, “college students. That is to say, their positions are fixed. They can only be placed before the subject. 5. 口语中,副词也可以出现在句末,所谓句末,就是句子的最后面
In oral Chinese, adverbs sometimes appear at the end of the sentence. 但是在副词前面要用什么呢?逗号隔开,也就是注意,应该有个逗号
However, what should be placed before the adverb? Separate it with commas. That is to say, there should be a comma 把它和前面的东西呢分开 我们来看一下两个例子。
separating it with what is before. Let us see two examples. 第一例,他们去了三天了 大概。
The first example, they have been away for three days, probably. “大概”是一个副词,那么
“Da gai(probably)” is an adverb.
It should have been “they probably have been away for three days”. The word “da gai(probably)” changed its position, the end of the sentence. 所以呢前面用个逗号隔开,第二个,你别走了,外边下雨呢,正在!”正在”也是一个副词
So, a comma is used to separate it. Second, don’t go. It’s raining outside, now! “Xian zai(now)” is an adverb. 那么它的位置也在句子的最后面,那么前面呢也有一个逗号跟它隔开了
It is placed at the end of the sentence and there is a comma before it to separate it. (二)副词的共现顺序
(II) Orders of several adverbs when used together 那么有多个副词一起出现的时候,那么就有一个副词的先后的问题
Where there are many adverbs, which one should be the first and which the next? 那么汉语的副词,它们一起出现的时候,它们的位置是什么样的呢
As for adverbs in Chinese, when they appear together, how should they be placed?
General position can be stated as follows. 第一,也就是说句子最前面出现的是什么呢?语气副词,然后是
First, what appears the first? Modal adverbs, and then
correlative adverbs, adverbs of time, adverbs of scope 之后呢是程度副词,然后是否定,然后重复,方式副词
Next, adverbs of degree, negation, and repetition, adverbs of manner 最后是动词短语或者是形容词短语,也就是说紧挨着这个动词的
And verb phrases or adjective phrases finally. That is to say, next to the verb or
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或者是形容词短语的主要是方式副词 我们来看一下具体的例子就比较清楚了
adjective phrases is mainly adverbs of manner. Let us have a look at some specific examples to make it clear. 我们看第一例,雨似乎渐渐地小了。
Let us turn to the first example, rain seems to get lighter gradually. “似乎”是一个
“Si hu(seem)” is an
adverb. “Jian jian de(gradually)” is also an adverb. What does “si hu(seem)” do? It’s a modal adverb. “渐渐地”是一个方式副词,所以呢 语气在方式的前面 [1] [8]。
“Jian jian de(gradually)” is an adverb of manner. Modal should be before manner [1] [8]. 第二例,谁都没告诉我。
Example two, No one told me. 这个”都” 是一个 我们前面讲过,是一个范围副词,”没有”呢是一个否定副词,也就是
The word “dou(all)” is, as we have discussed before, an adverb of scope. “Mei you(no)” is a negative adverb. [6] 那么范围在前,否定在后。
[6] So words indicating negative voice should be placed after scope. 第三例是,他已不再是我们家的人了。
Example three, he is no longer our family. 这个”已”呢 已是一个副词,它是什么副词呢?时间副词,”不”是什么
The word “yi(already)” is an adverb. What kind of adverb? Adverbs of time. What about “bu(no)”? 是一个否定,”再”呢是一个重复副词 那么它们的顺序是
It indicates negative voice. The word “zai(again)” is a frequency adverb. Their order should be [3] [6] [7],也就是说时间 否定 加上重复
[3] [6] [7], that is to say, negative voice plus frequency. 由于时间的问题,后面的例子我们就不逐一介绍了
As time limited, we will skip the following examples.


三,副词 “还” “又” “再” “还” “又” “再”
Third, adverbs like “also, still, again”. 它们的意思有相近的地方 用法呢,用的时候呢也有相近的地方。
These three words “hai, you, zai” have similar meanings. And as for their usages, sometimes. 因此呢,外国学习者学习的时候很容易把它们 混用起来,或者弄不清楚。
Therefore, foreign learners often mix them up or get confused. 下面我们就简单介绍一下 “还” “又” “在”
它们的意思和用法上的一些区别 一,”还”。
Next we will make a brief introduction of their differences among the words like “hai” “you” “zai” in their meaning and usage. First, “hai” “还”有很多的意思,第一个意思是表示呢 项目数量增加,范围扩大。
The word “hai” has many meaning. The first indicates that as the number of items increases, the scope expands. 我们来看一下例子。
Let us turn to some examples. 我会汉语 还会英语。
I can speak Chinese, and also English. 那么这个”还”表示什么呢?表示项目 增加了。
What does the word “hai(also)” mean? The number of items increases. 会汉语是一项,那么会英语是第二项,所以是这样的 项目增加。
The ability to speak Chinese is one of the items while English is the second. So it means the increase of items. 第二例,一斤饺子不够,还得买一斤。
Example two, it is not enough to have one jin(Chinese unit of weight,1 jin=0.5kg) of dumplings. There should be another one jin. 这个”还”表示什么呢,表示数量增加,因为一斤 再买一斤是二斤,就是数量增加
What does the word “hai(another)” indicate? It indicates the increase of amount, because one jin plus another one jin equals two jin, which is the increase of amount.
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二,表示行为动作或状态持续不变 例如,我们来看两个例子。
Second, it indicates an act or state remains the same. Let us look at two examples. 第一个 已经上课了,他还在睡觉。
The first one, he is still sleeping although class has begun. 所谓”还在睡觉”是什么呢,是指呢,这个”睡觉”啊
What does “is still sleeping” mean? It means the state of sleeping 这个状态还在持续 持续不变,就是没有发生变化,睡觉这样的还在睡
remain the same. That is to say there is not any change. He keeps sleeping. 那第二个,已经下课了,你怎么还没回去?那么一样,”没回去”这个状态还是保持不变
The second example: the class has been over. Why don’t you leave? It’s the same. The state of “not leave” still remains the same. 第三,表示行为、 动作重复
Third, it indicates the repetition of a behavior or an actions. 要注意的是什么呢?它用于未发生行为动作 多用于陈述句。
What should we pay attention to? When it is used to describe behaviors or actions that have yet to finish, it is usually used in declarative sentence. 那所谓”未发生”的,就是还没有发生的,也就是说所谓的将来的情况
What is “yet to finish”? It means what hasn’t happened, namely situations in the future.
Let us turn to some examples. The first one, I will come here again next year. “明年”是将来的情况,”还”
“Next year” means the future. “Hai(again)”
indicates repetition. What kind of repetition? The repetition of the action “come”. 第二例 看了一遍,他还想看一遍。
Example two, after seeing it, he wants to see it again. 那么这个”还”是什么呢?是表示
What does the word “hai(again)” mean? It shows
the repetition of the action, “watch”. Watch once and wants to watch again 所以呢这个也是一种将来还没有发生,是一种将来的情况 四,用于比较。
So it shows a situation that hasn’t happened and will happen in the future. Forth, it is used for comparison. 表示什么 意思呢?表示”更”。
What does it mean? It means “more”. 我们来看两个例子,第一个:今天比昨天还热
这个”还”是表示呢,热的程度呢更高,是”更热” 的意思。
Let us turn to two examples. The first one, today is hotter than yesterday.
The word “hai(-er)” indicates that the degree is higher and it is hotter. 第二例,下次考试比这次还要难
Example two, next exam will be more difficult than this one.
Actually, “hai nan” means “more difficult”. So the word “hai” means “more”. 第五,表示提醒
Fifth, it is used for warning 或者提示,含有什么呢 责备,讽刺的意思。
or reminding. What does it mean? Blame and sarcasm. 我们来看一下例子 第一个。
Let us look at some examples. The first one 你还学过半年汉语呢,怎么连一句话都不会说?
You have learned Chinese for half a year. How come you can’t say a single word? 你还学过半年汉语呢,是什么意思呢,就是提醒,就是你学过半年汉语,这是一个客观的情况
What does it mean by saying “You have learned Chinese for half a year.” It means reminding. It is an objective situation that you have learned Chinese for half a year. 怎么连一句话都不说呢?所以这样含有什么呢?责备的意思,批评、 责备的意思
What does the sentence “How come you can’t say a single word” express? Blame and criticize.
Let us turn to the second example. 还大学生呢,连这个道理都不懂!这个也是 “还大学生”提醒对方说你是大学生
You are a college student. How come you don’t understand? The sentence “You are a student” is to remind a fact. 那么这样话的意思呢,含有讽刺的意思。
So what does it mean? It expresses sarcasm. 第六种 用于让步复句的偏句,提出一种让步情况,表示呢”尚且” 这样的意思。
Sixth, it is used for modifier clauses of concessive complex sentences to raise concession, indicating “even though”. 我们来看一下例子,第一例。
Let us turn to some examples. The first one, 路还走不好呢,就想跑 这个路还走不好,所以这个”还”用在这的意思,表示
“You can’t even walk, How come you dreams to run.” In the sentence “You can’t even walk”, the word “hai” means “尚且”,它的意思就是,路尚且走不好,就想跑 所以是一种表示什么呢,一种让步情况
“shang qie(even)”.So what does it mean? Concession. 第二例,发音还没学,就想学课文。
Example two, You haven’t learned pronunciation. How come you want to learn Chinese. 这个”还”也是 表示一种让步,让步
The word “hai(even)” also means concession. 以上是”还”的这个意思和使用情况。
All above explains the meanings and usages of the word “hai”. 下面我们来看第二,”又” “又”也有很多的意思,很多的用法。
Let us turn to the second word “you(again)”. This word also has many meanings and usages. 我们看第一种情况 就是表示行为动作重复发生,或者两个行为动作
Let us look at the first situation: when a behavior or action repeats, or two behaviors or actions happen successively, it is used for the behaviors or actions that have finished. 要注意一下,就是它的条件 是用于已经发生的行为动作,就是这个事情已经做完了
We should pay attention to its condition that it is use for behaviors or actions that have finished. That is to say, the event has been over, so we use “you(again)”. 第一例,昨天他来了,今天他又来了 这个”来了”是已经发生了,表示呢,”来”是重复
The first example, he came here yesterday, and comes again today. The word “lai le(came)” means the action has happened. It indicates that the action “come” repeats. 第二个,妹妹吃了饭,又把衣服洗了。
The second one, my little sister had dinner and washed her clothes. 这个”又”表示什么呢?这个动作相继出现
What does the word “you(and)” mean? Actions happen successively.
What does it mean? It doesn’t indicate the repetition of the action “had dinner”, but the action of 完成之后,又出现了洗衣服这样的动作,所以是相继出现。
“washed clothes” happen right after “had dinner”. They happen successively. 但是这两个句子都是什么呢? 都是已经发生了的这个动作
What does these two sentences do? These actions have finished. It 行为,这是它的这个条件,一定要注意
is the condition of the use of “you(again)”. We should pay attention to it. 要特别注意是什么呢?”又”不能用于将来发生的行为动作
What should be paid attention to especially? The word “you” should not be used to describe behaviors or actions that happen in the future. 也就是说,表示没有发生的动作的时候,没有这个动作
That is to say, when the action hasn’t finished, there Is no such an action.
When it hasn’t happen, we can’t use the word “you(again)”. 我们来看一下啊 明年我又来中国。
Let us see, I will come to China again next year. 这个句子是错误的,为什么?是明年发生的动作
This sentence is wrong. Why? Because It will happen next year.
The action, “come to China”, has not happened yet. 所以在这用”又”就错了,应该说什么呢?明年我再来,用”再”
So if we use the word “you”, it is wrong. What should we say? Next year, I will come again. We should use “zai(again)” 或者是明年我还来,用”还”也可以 第二例,最好又复习一遍。
Or we should say “Next year we will come again.” We should use “hai(again)”. Example two, you’d better review again. 那么同样是不行的,为什么呢?
It is also wrong. Why?
The action “review” has not happened. So, if we use “you”, it is wrong. 也就是说,这个复习是将来发生的动作行为 所以最好用,应该改为什么呢?最好再复习
That is to say, the action “review” happens in the future. So what should we use? You’d better review again. 用”再”,表示将来的情况。
Use the word “zai(again)” to indicates the future. 二 “数量+又+数量”,它表示呢多 表示多,我们来看一下例子。
Second, “amount + you(and) + amount” It indicates many. Let us look at some examples. 第一例,这件衣服穿了一年又一年 一年是一个数量。
The first example, this clothes is worn year after year. “A year” is an amount. 所以呢,一年又一年是什么意思呢?就是说这个衣服穿的时间很长了 表示”多”,年头多。
So, what does “a year and a year” mean? It means the clothes has been worn for a long time, indicating many years. 第二例,他一次又一次地 来找我,我都没同意。
Example two, he comes for me again and again, but I don’t agree. 一次又一次就是很多次 相当于多次,这样的意思。
“Again and again” means many times. 第三例,这篇文章改了一遍又一遍
Example three, the passage has been revised over and over again.
So what does it mean? It means many times. So it indicates “many”. 三,表示呢两种情况同时存在 我们来看一下这个例子就比较清楚。
Third, it indicates that there exits two situations simultaneously. Let us turn to some examples to make it clear. 我们看第一例。
Let us look at the first example. 听到这个消息,大家 又激动又紧张。
On hearing the news, everyone is excited and nervous. 那”激动”是一种情况 “紧张”也是一种情况,那么”又激动又紧张”是什么呢
“Excited” is one of the situations and “nervous” is another. So, what is “excited and nervous”? 激动和紧张这两种情况呢是同时存在的
These two situations exit simultaneously. 第二例,留学时要学习,是一种情况,又要打工,所以每天都很忙 学习、
Example two, I have to study and take part-time jobs while studying abroad. So I am always on the move every day. “Study” and 打工是两种情况,这两种情况呢也是同时存在的。
“take part-time jobs” are two situations and they exit simultaneously. 时间的问题,我们就不细说下面一个例子
As time is limited, we will skip the next example.
What is stated above explains the word “hai”. Now let us move to the third word, “zai(again)” “再”有很多的意思和用法,”再”的第一个意思是表示
The word “zai(again)” has many meanings and usages. The first meaning is to indicate 行为动作重复或者是继续,用于未发生的行为动作,或者是什么呢?经常性的行为动作
the repetition or succession of a behavior or an action which has not happened. Or what does it indicate? Periodic behaviors or acts, often in imperative sentences. 注意,它的条件是什么呢?是用于未发生 行为动作或者是经常性的行为动作
Attention! What is its condition for using it. It is used for behaviors or acts that have not happened or periodic behaviors or acts. 而且多用于什么呢?祈使句 这几个条件非常重要 我们看一下例子。
And where is it usually used? Imperative sentences. These conditions are very important. Let us look at some examples. 第一个,老师,请您 再讲一遍,再讲一遍。
The first one, sir, please say again, again. 这个”再”表示什么呢? 表示”讲”的重复,也就是动作重复
What does the word “zai(again)” indicate? It indicates the repetition of the action “say”. 第二例,该吃饭了,吃了饭我们再复习吧。
The second example, it’s time for dinner. Let’s go over our lesson after dinner. 这个”再”表示什么呢? 表示呢动作的继续,就是”复习”这个动作在继续,继续
What does the word “zai(again)” indicate? It indicates the succession of the action, which means the action “go over” is continuing. 当然也可以理解为重复了,也可以理解为重复 应该注意是
Of course, it can also be interpreted as repetition. We should pay attention that “再”不能用于已经发生的行为动作,这个非常重要
the word “zai(again)”can’t be used for behaviors or acts that have finished, which is an important point. 就是已经发生的行为动作,这个”再”是不能用的 那我们看下面的句子,是出现了问题。
That is to say, the word “zai(again)” can’t be used to describe behaviors or acts that have finished. Let us look at examples below where there is something wrong. 在什么地方呢?我们看第一例,昨天老师 再讲了一遍。
Where? Let’s look at the first example. Yesterday, the teacher said again. “再讲了一遍” 虽然是也是重复,但是呢这个句子不成立,是错误的
Although the phrase “said again” is also repeating, but the sentence is wrong. 为什么?就是因为这个”讲”已经完成了,是过去的
Why? Because the action “said” has finished and it is a past 行为动作,所以呢不可以用”再”,那么应该用什么呢?应该我们前面讲的,应该用”又”
act, so we can’t use the word “zai(again)”. But what should be used? It should be what we have talked before, the word “you(again)”. 昨天老师又讲了一遍,这样这个句子就正确了 第二例,你怎么再迟到了?这个句子同样是错的
Yesterday, the teacher you said. Then it will be wright. The second example, why are getting late again? This sentence is wrong, too. 为什么错?就是因为什么,这个”迟到”已经发生了 是过去的事情。
Why wrong? Because the action “get late” has finished and has been past. 所以呢,用”再”在这个地方就错了,因为什么呢?
So, the word “zai(again)” is wrong here. Why?
As we have said before, the word “zai(again)” is used in the future tense. It means everything has not happened. 那么应该怎么改呢? 应该说什么呢?你怎么又迟到了?为什么呢?”又”也是表示重复
So how should it be revised? How should we say? It should be “Why are you You(again) getting late?” Why? Because “you(again)” indicates repetition 但是呢,它是用于过去发生的事情,所以呢用”又”就对了
However, it is used to describe what has happened. So it is correct to use “you(again)”. 二,表示行为动作 在另一个行为动作结束后出现。
Second, it indicates a behavior or an act happens after another one finishes. 我们来看一些例子。
Let’s look at some examples. 第一个,咱们吃完饭 再去吧。
The first one, let’s go after having dinner. 这个”再”是什么意思呢?实际上就是意思是说
What does the word “zai(again)” mean? It actually means
to go after having dinner. That is to say, after the action of “having dinner”, 发生”去”这样的动作,所以”再”在这起到一种连接的作用
the action “go” happens. So the word “zai(again)” works to connect these two actions.
The second example, we do our homework first and then watch TV. 也是一样,”先”和”再” 就是说写作业这个动作完成以后
It is the same, “xian(first)” and the “zai(and)”. That is to say, after the action of doing homework, 看电视再进行,这个”再”的意思就是表示呢 行为动作,一个行为动作
next comes the action of watching TV. The word “zai(and)” indicates that a behavior or an act 在另一个行为动作结束以后出现。
appears after another one finishes. 三 表示程度加深。
Third, a deeper degree 这样又有几种情况,一,是用于让步复句
It can be divided into several situations. First, it is used in modifier clauses of 的偏句中,表示那情况即使比已知的程度更高 结果呢都不会,不会发生变化。
concessive complex sentences to indicates that even though the condition is deeper than the known one, there would be no change. 我们来看一下例子。
Let’s turn to some examples. 第一个,汉语再难 我也要学下去。
The first, no matter how difficult Chinese is, I will keep learning. 这个”再难”不是一个真实的情况,是一种假设,是一种让步
The word “zai nan(no matter how difficult)” is not a real situation, but an assumption, a concession. 也就是说,比这个现有的情况 更难,那么也要学习下去,所以比现在的程度更高
That is to say, even though it is more difficult than what it is now, I will keep on studying. So the degree is deeper. 结果呢,学下去是不会改变的。
In the end, the action of studying will not change.
00:11:12,882 –> 00:11:17,751
第二个,火车再快 也不会比飞机快。
The second example, no matter how fast the train is, it can’t be faster than an airplane. 那么这个情况是跟第一例情况是差不多
This situation is similar to the first one. 二,用于祈使句或者是肯定句中 我们来看一下例子。
Second, it is used in imperative sentences or positive sentences. Let’s turn to some examples. 我在复习,电视的声音能不能再小一点?
I am going over my lessons. Could you please turn down the TV?
“Zai xiao yi dian er(turn down)” is an imperative sentence which means to ask others to turn down TV. 第二例,我是学生,没有钱,再便宜一点吧!也就是说要比现在的更便宜
The second example, I am a student and have no money. Could you please make it cheaper? That is to say it is cheaper to current price. 所以这个”再”呢也是一种假设
So the word “zai(-er)” is an assumption.