大家好,欢迎进入对外汉语教学核心语法课堂 今天我们讲第四讲,助词、
Hi,everyone!Welcome to the core grammar class of teaching Chinese as a second language.
Today we will learn Lecture Four Particle, 叹词和象声词 第一节,助词。
Interjection and onomatopoeia the first quarter, particle 一、 结构助词 把词语连接起来组成各种短语的词叫做结构助词
I. structural particles The word connected to form a variety of phrases is called structural particle. 结构助词有”的”、 “地”、 “得”三个。
Structural particles include three words of “de(的)”, ”de(地)” and “de(得)”. 例如 ①我买一些吃的东西。
For example, ① I bought something to eat. 这个”的” 是这个白勺的。
The “de” is “的”, which is made up by “bai (白) shao(勺)” 第二个,大家 高兴地答应了。
The second example, everyone agreed happily. 这个也是”地”,但是是土也地 第三个,你唱得不错。
The “de” is “地”, which is made up by “tu (土) ye(也)”. The third example, you sing well. 这个也是”得”,它们的发音 是相同的,但是写法是完全不一样,这个是双人”得”
The “de” here is “得”, which has the same pronunciation with the first two words, but different spelling. It is “shuang ren (双人) de (得). 我们看第一个”的”,白勺的 1.
Let us see the first “de”, which is made up by “bai (白) shao(勺)” 1. “的”的主要作用 (1)连接作用 “的”常用在名词(短语)、
The main function of “de” (的) (1)the “de” that plays the role of connection is usually placed after nouns (phrases), 动词(短语)、 形容词(短语)等后面,把定语和中心语 连接起来,组成短语。
verbs (phrases), adjectives (phrases) and so forth. It connects the attributive to the central word to form a phrase. 例如,我的书 学校的东西、 休息的时候
For example, “wo de shu, xue xiao de dong xi, xiu xi de shi hou” (my book, stuff in the school, break time) “动词或者动词短语 + 的 + 名词”中的”名词”
“Nouns” in “verb or verb phrase + de + noun” 如果是行为动作的发出者或者是行为动作的承受者 那么”名词”可以省略。
If it is the issuer of a behavioral act or a taker of a behavioral act, “nouns” can be omitted. 例如,我们来看一下第一个例子 吃的(东西)买了。
Let us see the first example, “chi de (dong xi) mai le.” (something to eat is bought). 这个 “东西”可以不说出来,我们可以说吃的买了 意思就是吃的东西。
The “dong xi” (something) can be omitted in Chinese here. We can say that “Chi de mai le”, which means that something to eat is bought. 它是这个,”东西”是受事 第二个,吃的(人)都来了。
The “dong xi” (something) is a taker of a behavioral act. Example two, “chi de (ren) dou lai le” (people who eat have all come). 这个”人”是施事,所以这个”人”也可以不说出来,可以省略掉
The “ren (people) is an issuer of a behavioral act and can be omitted. 注意,”名词”是时间、 处所 工具等,一般不能省略。
Pay attention, when “nouns” are time, place tools, etc., they generally cannot be omitted. 下面的说法都是错误的 第一个例子,吃饭的(时候)再说。
The following statement is wrong. The first example, “chi fan de (shi hou) zai shuo ba” (let us talk about it when we eat). 这个”时候” 一定不能省掉,不能说”吃饭的再说吧”。
The “shi hou” (when) shall not be omitted. You cannot say that “Chi fan de zai shuo ba”. 为什么呢?”时候”表示时间 第二个例子,这是我们上课的(地方)。
Why? the “shi hou” refers to time. The second example, “zhe shi wo men shang ke de (di fang).” (this is the place we take class). 这个”地方”也不能省略,省略了就是错的
The “di fang (place) cannot be omitted.
应该是说”这是我们上课的地方”,不能说”这是我们上课的”
You may not say “zhe shi wo men shang ke de” (this is we take class), but “zhe shi wo men shang ke de di fang” (this is the place we take class) (2)转换作用 “的”也常常用在动词或者动词短语、
(2)the “de” that also plays the role of conversion is used after verbs, verb phrases, 形容词或者短语 它的后面,把动词或者动词短语、 形容词、
adjective or adjective phrases of it and converts them 形容词短语转换成名词性的成分 例如,我们来看两个例子。
to nominal components. Let us see two examples. 第一个,看的 “看”是个动词,加上”的”以后就变成了一个名词性的成分
The first one, “kan de”, when the “kan” (see), a verb, is added with “de”, it becomes a nominal component 来表示人或者事物,那”看的”就是相当于”看的人”或者是”看的东西”
to represent person or thing, so the “kan de” is equal to “kan de ren” (people you see) or “kan de dong xi” (something you see).
那第二例,我买的。
The second example, “wo mai de” (something I bought) 这个”我买”、 这个”买”也是个动词,加上”的”以后 也变成了一个名词性的东西。
When the “mai” (bought), a verb is added with “de”, it also becomes a nominal component. 表示什么呢?”我买的东西”,表示事物 第三个,漂亮的。
What does it refers to? “Something I bought”. The third example, “piao liang de” (beautiful) “漂亮”是个形容词,加上”的”以后也变成
When the “piao liang”, an adjective is added with “de”, it also becomes
一个名词性的东西,相当于”漂亮的人”或者是”漂亮的东西” 2.
a nominal component, which is equivalent to “piao liang de ren” (someone beautiful) or “piao liang de dong xi” (something beautiful) 2. “的”的其他作用 (1)
Other functions of “de” (1) 用在句子的动词和宾语之间,强调已经发生的行为动作的主语、 宾语
It is used between the verb and the object of sentences, emphasizing the subject or the object of the action that has taken place, 或行为动作发生的地点、 方式等。
Or place and way of action that has taken place and so on. 例如 第一例,我们看一看,爸爸花的钱
For example, “wo men kan yi kan, ba ba hua de qian.” (let us have a look at the money spent by dad). 这个”花”是个动词,”钱”是个宾语,这个”的”放在动词和宾语的中间
The “hua” (spent) is a verb, and “qian” (money) is an object. The “de” is placed between a verb and an object.
它的意思是什么?是爸爸花的钱。
What does it represent? The money spent by dad. 第二例,我学的汉语。
Example two, “wo xue de han yu”. (I learnt Chinese). “学”是个动词,”汉语”是宾语,这个”的”用在中间 它的意思是什么呢?我学的是汉语。
The “xue” (learnt) is a verb, and the “Chinese” is an object. The “de” is used between them two. What does it represent? The language I learnt is Chinese. (2) 在一些动宾短语中间插入指人的名词或代词加上”的”
(2)Some nouns which are inserted in the middle of verb-object phrases and refer to people or pronouns plus “de” 表示名词或代词所指的人是行为动作的对象 例如,我们来看两个例子。
indicates that the person who is represented by nouns or pronouns is the object of action. Let us see two examples. 第一个,她开老师的玩笑 那么”老师”的后面有个”的”
The first one, “ta kai lao shi de wan xiao” (she is kidding her teacher.) The “de” after the “teacher” 那么在作”玩笑”的定语 “老师”是”开玩笑”的对象。
is used as the attribute of “wan xiao” (joke). The “teacher” is the object of kidding. 第二例,妈妈生弟弟的气
Example two, “ma ma sheng di di de qi” (my mother is angry at my brother).
那么这个”弟弟”后面有”的”,放在”气”的前面作定语,那么”弟弟”是”生气”的对象
The “de” after the “brother” is placed before the “qi” and used as an attribute. The “brother” is the object of “sheng qi” (angry). (3)用在并列的词语的最后一项后面
(3)Used after the last term of a side-by-side expression, 表示”等等””之类”的意思,有时候”的”前面也出现”什么” 例如,我们看第一例。
it means “and so on”, “such as”, sometimes there is “shen me” (what) before “de”. For example, let us see the first example. 春节的时候,妈妈鸡呀、 鱼的买了一大堆
When the spring festival is coming, my mother will bought a lot of chicken and fish. 那么这个是”鱼的”是相当于什么呢?鱼啊等 之类的东西。
What does the “yu de” represent? Fish and so on. 第二个,衣服、 雨伞、 钱什么的 这个”的”在”什么”的后面,都带了吗?
The second example, do you take clothes, umbrella, money “shen me de” (and so forth)? The “de” is used after “shen me”. 那么这个也是相当于”之类””等等”这样的意思
It also represents “such as”, “and so on”. (二)地 而且这是土也地的”地”。
(II)de (地), which is made up by “tu”(土) and “ye”(也). 结构助词”地”用在形容词 副词等后面,把状语和中心语连接起来
Structural particle of “de” (地) is used after adjectives and adverbs to connect adverbial with central word
我们来看一下具体的例子。
Let us see some specific examples. 第一个例子,昨天校长热情地接见了 大家。
The first example, yesterday, the president met us (re qing de)fervently. 所以这是形容词后面用的”地”。
The “de” (地) is used after the adjective of “re qing”. 第二个,他悄悄地出去了,老师没有发现。
The second example, he went out (qiao qiao de) quietly, and the teacher did not know it. 这个是 “悄悄”是一个副词,所以后面也有”地”。
The “qiao qiao” is an adverb and added with “de”. 第三个,同学们面红耳赤地 争论了起来。
The third example, classes have angry passages with each other. “面红耳赤”是一个短语 后面加上”地”也是作状语。
“mian hong er chi” is a phrase an added with “de” to be used as a an adverbial. (三) 下一个得就是双人得,也是”得”。
(III)the next one is “de” (得), which is called “shuang ren de” 1.
1. “得”的主要作用 结构助词”得”用在动词、
Main function of “de” (得) the structural particle of “de” is used after verbs 形容词后面,把动词、 形容词和补语连接起来 比如说,你唱得很好。
and adjectives to connect verbs, adjectives and complements. For example, you sing well. 这个”很好”是个补语,这个”得” 把这个补语和动词连接起来。
The “hen hao” (well) is a complement. The “de” (得) connects a complement with a verb. 第二个,屋里热得不得了。
The second, it is so hot in the room. “不得了”也是补语,这个”得” 把补语和形容词连接起来
The “bu de liao” (so) is also a complement. The “de” (得) connects a complement and an adjective. 2.
2. “得”的其他用法。
Other usages of “de” (得) (1)”动词+得”表示可以、 可能
(1) “verb+ de” represents can, maybe 那么动词为单音节的,而且是”看、 吃、 说、
When verbs are monosyllabic and some common verbs of “see, eat, say, 用、 穿”等少数常用动词 例如,第一例我们看一下。
use and wear” for example, let us see the first example. 你看得,我们也看得!这个 “看得”是什么意思呢?就是表示”你可以看””你能看”
“ni (you) kan de, wo men (we) ye (also) kan de”. What does the “kan de” mean? It means that you can see.
这样的意思。
That is it.
00:06:44,826 –> 00:06:53,530
第二个,这些东西吃得吃不得?
The second example, zhe xie dong xi (these things) chi de chi bu de?
“吃得”表示”可以吃”,”吃不得”就是”不能吃””不可以吃”的意思
“chi de” refers to “it can be ate”, “chi bu de” refers to “it cannot be ate” 注意,”动词+得”不能带宾语。
Pay attention, “verb+de” shall not be added with objects. 我们看一下下面两个例子 第一个,她看得这本书,”看得”后面有宾语”这本书”
Let us see the following two examples. The first one, “ta kan de zhe ben shu” (she can read this book), there is the object of “zhe ben shu” after “kan de”
我也看得。
So do I. 这样的句子是不成立的,也就是说”看得”的后面不可以有 这个宾语,不可以有宾语。
This sentence is not appropriate. That is to say, there shall not be the object after the “kan de”. 所以因此我们可以说,”这本书她看得” 把”这本书”放在”她”的前边,我也看得。
Therefore, we can say that “zhe ben shu ta kan de”, that is, “zhe ben shu” is placed after “ta”, so do I. 这样就可以了。
That is okay. 第二例 他吃得苹果,我也吃得。
The second example, “ta chi de ping guo, wo ye chi de” (he can eat apples, so do I). 这个句子也是不成立,为什么呢?这个后面也有宾语 “苹果”,所以这个句子错了。
This sentence is also appropriate. Why? there is also the object of “ping guo” (apple) after it, so it is wrong. 那么怎么办?”苹果”放在前边 苹果他吃得,我也吃得。
What is the right expression? Put the “ping guo” (apple) in front of it. Just like “ping guo ta chi de, wo ye chi de” (he can eat apples, so do I). 这样的 就可以了,句子就成立了。
That is okay. The sentence is right. (2) “动词/形容词+得”
(2) “verb / adjective + de” “得”后面的话不说出来,含有夸张 或者”无法形容”的意思。
The word after “de” is omitted to express the meaning of exaggeration or “beyond words”. 我们看一下具体的例子,第一个
Let us see some specific examples. The first one 昨天把我累得!”把我累得”什么意思呢?就是把我累得没法说
“zuo tian ba wo lei de”! What does “ba wo lei de” mean? It means that “ba wo lei de mei fa shuo” (I was tired beyond words yesterday). 后面这个”没法说”没有说出来,因此它 含有什么呢?夸张的意思。
The “mei fa shuo” is omitted to express the meaning of exaggeration. 第二例,看把你急得! 它的意思是什么呢?急得都这样了
Example two, “kan ba ni ji de”! What does it mean? “ji de dou zhe yang le” 那么这同样是”都这样了”没有说出来,那么它也是
The “dou zhe yang le” is also omitted. 有它的夸张的意思,就是说有”无法形容”这样的意思
It has the meaning of exaggeration and “beyond words”. 二、 动态助词
II. Aspect particle 用在动词或者形容词后面,表示行为动作或性质的 情态的助词叫做动态助词
The word that is used after verbs or adjectives to represent the behavior of action or nature of the modal particle is called aspect particle 动态助词有”了””着””过” 例如,我们看第一个例子。
Aspect particles include “le”, “zhe” and “guo”. For example, let us see the first one. 他们在那儿等着 有”着”。
There is the “zhe” in the sentence of “ta men zai na er deng zhe” (they wait there). 我学了,第二个,学了一年汉语。
I “xue le” (have learnt), the second one, Chinese for one year 有”了”。
The “le” is placed here. 第三个,大家都来过中国。
The third example, we “lai guo” (have been to) China. 有”过”
The “guo” is placed here.

 


 

(一)了。
(I) le “了”用在动词或形容词后面,表示实现 即表示行为动作的发生或状态的出现等。
The “le” is used after verbs or adjectives to represent the achievement or occurrence of behavior or the emergence of the state and so on. 例如 ①昨天我在这儿等了一个小时,他才来 第二个例子,同学们放了学就回家
For instance, ① Yesterday I was here for an hour before he came. The second example, students go home after school. 这个”了”,这两个”了”,都表示什么呢?实现,动作实现了,过去我们说叫完成 1.
What does these two “le” here? It is achievement. The action here is achieved. We said it as accomplishment in the past. 1. “了”与动词和形容词 “了”表示行为或状态的实现
“le” with verbs and adjectives “le” represents the achievement of action or state. 这就决定了有些动词、 形容词可以带”了”,有些呢不能带”了”
It determines that some verbs and adjectives can added with “le”, some cannot. 动词能否带”了”的情况如下 第一类,行为动作动词
The verbs whether can be added with “le” are as follows. The first group, “le” can be placed after the action verbs of “说、 听、 打、 写、 看、 买、 卖”等都可以带”了”
“say, listen, hit, write, see, buy, sell” and so on. 第二类,状态动词”想、 爱、 怕、 恨、
The second group, “le” can also be placed after the state verbs of “xiang, ai, pa, hen, 喜欢”等也可以带”了” 第三类,趋向动词”来、 去、 过来、
Xi huan” and so forth. The third group, “le” can be also placed after the direction verbs of “lai, qu, guo lai, 过去”等 也可以带”了”;第四类,关系动词 “在、
Guo qu” and so on; the fourth group, “le” shall not be placed after the relation verbs of “zai, 在于、 是、 属于、 属、 存在”等不能带”了”
Zai yu, shi, shu yu,shu, cun zai” and so on. 形容词能否带”了”的情况如下 (1)谓语形容词”大、
Adjectives whether can be added with “le” are as follows. (1) the “le” can be usually placed after the predicate adjectives of “da (big), 小、 多、 少、 高、 矮”等一般可以带”了” (2)非谓形容词”男、
Xiao(small), duo(many), shao(little), gao(tall), ai(short) and so forth. (2) the “le” shall not be placed after the non-predicate adjectives of “nan (male), 女、 彩色、 黑白、 大型”等 不能带”了”。
Nv(female), cai se (color), hei bai (black and white), da xing(huge) and so on. 2.
2. “了”的位置 (1)表示动作行为已经发生或实现的连动句
The position of “le” (1) A syncretic sentence that indicates that an action has occurred or has been achieved 所谓连动句就是一个句子里面有两个动词或者三个动词
The so-called syncretic sentence is a sentence which has two verbs or three verbs 如果第一个动词短语表示的动作行为发生后,再发生第二个动词
If after the action of the first verb phrase has occurred and then the behavior of the second verb phrase 短语表示的动作行为,这个”了”呢一般放在第一个动词后面。
occurs, the “le” is usually placed after the first verb. 我们来看两个例子 第一个例子,姐姐买了一件毛衣给我
Let us see two examples. The first example, my sister bought a sweater for me. “买”是一个动词,”给”是第二个动词,那么这个 “了”放在”买”的后面。
The “mai” (bought) is a verb. The “gei” is the second verb. The “le” is placed after the “mai”. 第二个,妈妈抓了一把糖 放在我的口袋里。
The second example, my mother grabbed candies and put them in my pocket. 所以呢,”抓”是一个动词,”放”是 第二个动词,那么”了”呢放在第一个动词的后边
So the “zhua” (grab) is a verb. The “fang” (put) is the second verb. The “le” is placed after the first verb of “zhua”. (2)表示动作行为已经发生 或实现的连动句,如果第一个动词或短语
(2) A syncretic sentence that indicates that an action has occurred or has been achieved. If the first verb or phrase 表示后一个动词或短语所表示的动作行为的方式 或者工具,或者呢第二个动词短语
represents a method or tool that indicates the action behavior of the latter verb or phrase, or the second verb phrase 表示的动作行为是第一个动词表示的动作行为的目的,一般第二个动词后带”了”
of the action behavior expressed is the purpose of the action act indicated by the first verb, the “le” shall be placed after the second verb 也就是说跟第一种情况是相反的,我们来看两个例子 第一个例子,哥哥骑车去了学校。
That is to say, it is contrary to the first condition. Let us see some examples. The first one, my brother went to school by bike. “骑”是一个动词 “去”是第二个动词,那么骑车呢是去学校的一个方式,所以呢
The “qi” is a verb; the “qu” is the second verb. “by bike” is a way of going to school, so 这个”了”放在了”去”的后面。
the “le” is placed after the “qu”. 第二例,他用我的洗衣机洗了几件衣服。
Example two, he washed some clothes with my washing machine. “用” 是一个动词,”洗”也是一个动词,用我的洗衣机是什么呢?是一种工具
“yong” is a verb, and “xi” (wash) is also a verb. What is my washing machine? A tool, 是洗衣服的工具,用洗衣机洗,不是用手洗,所以呢这个”了”呢放在第二个
动词”洗”的后面。
Used for washing clothes. The “le” is placed after the second verb of “xi”. 第三,表示动作行为已经发生或实现的兼语句 一般呢最后一个动词后带”了”。
The third, the pivotal sentence that the action has occurred or been implemented. The “le” here is usually placed after the last verb. 比如说我们看一下,第一个例子,公司让他去了北京
For example, the company let him go to Beijing. 这个”让”,让他去了北京,那么这是一个兼语句
The “rang” (let) here is used in a pivotal sentence. 所谓兼语句是什么意思呢?就是第一个动词的宾语啊是第二个动词
What does pivotal sentence mean? It means that the object of the first verb is the subject of the 的这个主语,所以呢这个”了”呢放在 第二个动词的后面。
second verb, so the “le” is placed after the second verb. 第二个,这件事使我懂得了一个道理 那么,”使”是个动词,”懂得”也是一个动词
The second example, this thing made me understand the truth. The “shi” (made) is a verb, and “dong de” (understand” is also a verb 所以呢”了”放在”懂得”的后面 那么这件事使我懂得了一个道理,做人一定要诚实。
So the “le” is placed after the “dong de”. This thing made me understand the truth that people shall be honest. 那么这个”了”呢放在”懂得”的后面 第四,几个句子如果叙述的是一连串的行为动作
The “le” is placed after the “dong de”. The fourth, if sentences state a series of actions 一般呢最后一个动词的后面要用”了”
The “le” shall be placed after the last verb. 例如,第一个,弟弟跑进屋,扔下书包,拿起皮球就出去了
For example, my brother ran into the house, dropped the bag, picked up the ball and went out. 那么这个是叙述的一连串的动作行为,”跑进屋”是一个动作
There are a series of actions. “pao jin wu” (ran into the house) is an action 行为,”扔下书包”又是一个动作行为,”拿起皮球”然后”出去”
“reng xia shu bao” (dropped the bag) is also an action. “na qi pi qiu” (picked up the ball) and “chu qu” (went out) 有四个动作的行为,所以呢,一般来说啊,最后一个句子的
动词后用”了”,所以这个”了”放在”出去”的后面。
Have four actions, in general, the “le” is placed after the verb of the last sentence
Hence, the “le” is placed after the “chu qu”. 第二例,公司昨天开会 表扬了老张。
Example two, the company held a meeting and praised Mr. Zhang. 这是两个动作行为,所以呢这个 “了”呢放在最后一个小句的这个”表扬”的后面
There are two actions. Therefore, the “le” is placed after the last verb of “biao yang” (praised). (5) “了”放在”动词+结果补语”的后面,这个比较简单。
(5) “le” is placed after “verb+ the complement of result”. It is easy. 比如说第一个例子 桌子擦干净了。
For example, “zhuo zi ca gan jing le” (the table is clean). 这个”了”在什么地方呢?在补语
Where is the “le” placed? The complement “干净”是补语,”了”在这儿,不可以说”桌子擦了干净了” 他吃完了两碗饭。
“gan jing” is the complement. It will be wrong when you say that “zhuo zi ca le gan jing le”. “ta chi wan le liang wan fan” (He ate two bowls of rice). “吃”是动作,”完”是补语 因此呢这个”了”放在”完”的后面
“chi” (ate) is an action, and “wan” is a complement. Therefore, the “le” is placed after the “wan”. (6)动词 加来或者去,没有
(6) verbs added with lai or qu, when there is no 宾语的时候,”了”呢一般在”来””去”的后面
有宾语呢,有两种情况,一种是”动词+来/去+了+宾语”
object, the “le” is placed after the “lai” and “qu”;
when there is objects, there are two conditions, the first one is “verb +lai/qu+le+object” 我们看一下例子就比较清楚了,我们看第一例 弟弟给我寄来了一张明信片
Let us see some examples to be clear. The first example, “di di gei wo ji lai le yi zhang ming xin piain” (my brother sent me a postcard). 那么这个”一张明信片”是一个宾语
The “yi zhang ming xin pian” (a postcard) is an object “寄”后面带”来了”,因此呢这个”了”在”来”的后面
“lai le” is placed after the “ji”, therefore, the “le” is placed after the “lai”. 第二例,我给弟弟送去了一些吃的。
Example two, I sent something to eat for my brother. 那么这个
Then the
“一些吃的”是宾语,所以呢这是动词,这是”去”,所以呢这个”了”呢放在”去”的后面
“yi xie chi de” (something to eat) is an object. The “qu” is a verb. Hence, the “le” is placed after the “qu”. 另一种情况是什么呢?”动词+了+宾语+来/去”
What is the another condition? “verb +le +object +lai / qu” 注意的问题,要注意的是什么呢?就是宾语啊
What shall be noted here? It is object.
不能是抽象的名词或者是存现宾语,这是一个条件
And it shall not be an abstract noun or an object of existence. This is a condition. 我们看下面两个例子。
Let us see the following two examples. 第一个 弟弟给我寄了一张明信片来
The first one, “di di gei wo ji le yi zhang ming xin pian lai” (my brother sent me a postcard). 所以这个”了”在哪呢?在动词”寄”的后面 “来”在最后。
Where is the “le”? it is placed after the verb of “ji”. The “lai” is placed in the last. 第二个,我给弟弟送了一些 吃的去。
The second one, “wo gei di di song le yi xie chi de qu” (I sent something to eat for my brother). 这个”了”在”送”的后面,”去”呢后面没有”了” [咳嗽] The “le” is placed after the “song”. There is no “le” after “qu”. [cough] 第七种情况,就是”动词+复合趋向补语”
The seventh condition, “verb + compound directional complement” 带”了”有两种位置,一种是”动词+了+趋向补语” 例如,我们来看两个例子。
There are two positions with “le”. One is “verb+ le+ directional complement”. Let us see some examples. 第一,你怎么把我的秘密 全说了出来。
The first one, “ni zen me ba wo de mi mi quan shuo le chu lai” (how could you say all my secrets)? 这个”说”是动词,”出来”呢 是复合趋向补语,所谓复合趋向补语是什么呢?就是两个汉字
The “shuo” (say) is a verb. “chu lai” is compound directional complement. What the so-called compound directional complement? Two Chinese characters 两个汉字,那么这个”了”在什么地方呢?在动词 后面,”说”的后面。
And then where is the “le”? After the verb of “shuo” 第二例,小狗向我们跑了过来,这也是
Example two, the puppy ran to us. “跑”是动词,”过来”是复合趋向补语,这个”了”呢在动词”跑”的 后面。
“pao” (ran) is a verb. “guo lai” is a compound directional complement. The “le” is placed after the verb of “pao”. 那么这类句子有一个特点,是什么特点呢?就是带有描写的色彩
This kind of sentence has a character. What is it? With the color of depiction 有突出行为动作的作用,有强调,有突出这个动作,所以把”了”放在动词的后面
to highlight the action, so the “le” is placed after the verb. 另一种是什么呢?”动词+
What is another one kind of it? “verb+ 趋向补语+了”,这是另外一种情况,就是”了”在趋向补语的后面
directional complement + le”, this is another condition that the “le” is placed after the directional complement 我们看两个例子,第一个例子,那些桌子都搬进去了
Let us see some examples. The first one, these tables are all moved in. 对吧,”搬”是动词,”进去”是复合趋向补语,但是”了”呢在”进去”的后面
“ban” (move) is a verb. “jin qu” is a compound directional complement. However, the “le” is placed after the “jin qu”.
第二例,我的护照拿出来了。
Example two, my passport was taken out. “拿”是动词,”出来” 是复合趋向补语,这个”了”呢在哪呢?在”出来”的后面。
“na” is a verb. “chu lai” is a compound directional complement. Where is the “le”? after the “chu lai” 这类 句子啊,它没有描写的色彩,也就是说跟第一种情况是不一样的
This kind of sentence has no color of depiction. That is to say, it is different with the first condition.


“了”的使用规律。
The usage of “le” “了”表示实现 但是呢,并不是所有表示实现的都要用”了”,这是汉语的特点
那要特别注意。
“le” represents achievement. However, “le” does not represent all of achievements. This is the character of Chinese. Please pay attention to it. 第一种情况,如果句子中有表示过去某一时间的词语
The first condition, if there is a word that represents sometime at once in the sentence 而行为动作呢在这一时间内已经发生了,那么动词后要用”了”
and the action was done in that time, then the “le” shall be used after the verb 我们看两个例子,第一,五一我去了泰山
Let us see some examples. First, I went to Mount Tai in May Day. 那么这个句子里面有一个时间词语”五一”,而且”去了”
There is a time word of “May Day”, and the action of “qu le” (went to) 这个动作发生在”五一”这个时间内,已经发生了,所以呢这个动词”去”的后面要加”了”
took place in the time of “May Day”. It has been done, so the “le” shall be used after the verb of “qu”. 第二个,那天晚上妈妈就回了上海 “那天晚上”是一个时间,时间词语,对吧
Second, mom returned to Shanghai that night. “that night” is a time word, right? 那么”回了”是在”那天晚上”这个时间 之内已经发生的事情,所以这个”了”呢放在
And then the “hui le” (returned to) was done in the time of “that night”, so the “le” is placed 回的后面,而且要用”了”,要用”了”,回后面要用”了”,去后面也要用”了”
Afer the “hui” (returned) and shall be added with “le”. 第二种情况是一个行为动作 发生或者完成后,另外一个行为动作或情况才出现
The second condition is that after a behavior action occurs or is completed, another action or situation occurs 那么不管第一个行为动作是否发生 那么第一个动词后一般要用”了”,我们来看两个例子
Whether the first action occurs or not, the “le” shall be used after the first verb in general. Let us see two examples. 第一个情况,第一个例子,他洗了澡就睡觉了
The first condition, example one, he went to bed after taking a shower.
对吧,也就是说先洗澡,然后再去睡觉,那么这个第一个动词
That is to say, he took a shower and then went to bed. Pay attention to the first verb of “xi zao” (took a shower) 洗澡,洗的后面加上”了”,有一个”了” 第二个,写了作业再去玩。
The “le” shall be used after the “xi”. Example two, “xie le zuo ye zai qu wan” (you can go out to play after finishing the homework). 写了作业再去玩,这个作业实际上还没有写
Actually, the homework has not been finished 就是将来的完成,那么这个因为是要先写作业,然后再去玩,也就是这个动作发生以后
It is the future perfect. Because the action of playing shall be done after finishing the homework, 然后再发生后面的动作,所以这个第一个动词的后面 用了”了”。
the “le” shall be used after the first verb. (3)直接引语和间接引语前的动词后,一般不用”了”
(3) in general, the “le” is not used after verbs before direct quotations and indirect quotations
我们来看两个例子,第一个例子,刘老师说:”下星期一考试。
Let us see some examples. Example one, Mr. Liu said: “there will be an examination next Monday.” ” “下星期一考试”是刘老师说的话 所以是直接的引语,那么我们看说这个事情
“there will be an examination next Monday” is the word of Mr. Liu. Therefore, it is a direct quotation. The action of “shuo” (said) 已经发生了,这个动作已经发生了,但是呢后面不能有”了”
has done, however, the “le” shall not be used after it.
第二种情况,第二个例子:天气预报说,明天有雨
The second condition, example two: The weather forecast says there is rain tomorrow 明天有雨是天气预报说的一个内容,但是呢不是直接这么说的,所以我们叫间接引语
“there is rain tomorrow” is the content of weather forecast. However, it is not the original words of the weather forecast. Therefore, we call it indirect quotation. 那么这个动词说的后面也没有”了”,尽管这个事情已经发生,但是呢也是不用”了”的
There is no “le” after the verb of “shuo” (say). Although the thing has been done, the “le” shall ot be used after it. 第四种情况就是宾语为动词或者短语,主谓短语 等时,谓语动词后不用”了”,我们来看
The fourth condition is that the object is a verb, a phrase, or a subjective-predicate phrase, the “le” shall not be used after the predicate verb, let us see 两个例子,第一个,朋友告诉我们这儿的东西很 便宜。
some examples, example one, my friends told us things are cheap here. 这个”我们这儿的东西很便宜”这是一个小句
The “things are cheap here” is a sentence. 是一个主谓短语,主语我们这儿的东西,”东西很便宜”是个主谓短语
And a subjective-predicate phrase. “things are cheap” is a subjective-predicate phrase 那么”告诉”尽管这个事情已经做了,已经
发生了这个动作,但是呢我们说这个”告诉”的后面不能用”了”
The action of ”gao su” (told) has been done, but the “le” shall not been used after the “gao su” 第二呢,女朋友答应跟我一起来中国学习
Example two, my girlfriend promised to come to China with me to study
“跟我一起来中国学习”呢是一个谓词性动词性的短语
“come to China with me to study” is predicative verb phrase 那么”答应”的后面,”答应”尽管是发生了,但是这个”答应”的后面也不能用”了”
Although the “da ying” (promised) has been done, the “le” shall not been used after it. 第五种情况就是结果补语、 程度补语、 情态补语前的动词
The forth condition is verbs before result complement, degree complement, and modal complement 那么不管行为动作发生了还是没有发生,那么后面都不用”了”,例如
Whether the action has been done or not, the “le” shall not been used after it, for example,
第一个例子,买到票了吗?
Example one, “mai dao piao le ma?” (Did you get the ticket?) 这个后面不能用”了”,买到的”到”后面不能用”了” 第二个,他吃完饭就回去了。
The “le” shall not been used after the “mai dao”. Example two, “ta chi wan fan jiu hui qu le” (He returned after dinner). 这个”吃完”后面也是不能用”了”的 第四种情况,”动词+了”的否定
The “le” shall not been used after the “chi wan”. The fourth condition, the negation of “verb + le” (1)”动词+了+名词”的否定是在动词前加上”没有”
(1) the negation of “verb +le +noun” is that the “mei you” (not) is added after a verb 删去”了”,例如,我们来看一下两个例子。
And the “le” is deleted. For example, 第一个,她看了电影 看了电影,那么它的否定是什么呢?在
Example one, “ta kan le dian ying” (she watched the moive). What is the negation of “kan le dian ying”? add “看”的前面加上”没有”,要特别注意的是 要把”了”,这个”了”删掉
“mei you” before the “kan”, however, the “le” shall be deleted here. 不可以说,她没有看了电影,应该把”了”去掉,她没有看电影 第二个例子,我吃了饭。
The expression of “ta mei you kan le dian ying” is wrong. The “le” shall be deleted. “ta mei you kan dian ying” is okay. Example two, “wo chi le fan” (I had the meal). 同样的道理,那么是加”没有”,”吃”的前面加上”没有”
Likewise, the “mei you” shall be added before the “chi”. 但是呢,这个”吃”的后面的”了”也要删掉,也要删掉 注意
And the “le” after the “chi” shall be deleted as well. Pay attention to it. “动词+了+名词”用”没有”否定的时候啊,必须删去”了” 例如,第一个
The “le” shall be deleted when the “mei you” is used before the phrase of “verb +le +noun”. For example, example one, 他们没交了作业,这个是外国学习者,外国的学习者容易犯的错误
The wrong sentence of “ta men mei jiao le zuo ye” is usually made by foreign learners. 那么这个句子是错的,为什么呢?就是因为这个”没”
This sentence is wrong. Why? because the “le” is not deleted when the “mei” 加上动词,后面这个”了”还有,应该把”了”去掉,应该说,他们没交作业
is added with a verb. The right expression is that “ta men mei jiao zuo ye” (they did not hand in the homework).
第二个,我们没有复习了汉字。
Example two, “wo men mei you fu xi le han zi” 那么同样是错误的句子,那么
This is also a wrong sentence.
应该把这个”了”去掉,应该说什么呢,我们没有复习汉字,这样就正确了
The “le” here shall be deleted. The expression of “wo men mei you fu xi han zi” (we did not review Chinese characters) is right. (2)”动词+了+数量” “动词+了+数量”的否定有时是在动词前加上”没有”
(2) “verb + le +amount” the negation of “verb + le + amount” is to add “mei you” before a verb sometimes. 删去”了”,同时删去数量词。
the “le” and the word of amount shall be deleted. 我们来看一下这个例子 第一个,我买了一本书。
Let us see the example. Example one, “wo mai le yi ben shu” (I bought a book). 那么这个句子怎么否定呢? 那么应该说,我没有买书。
What is the negation of this sentence? “wo mei you mai shu” (I did not buy a book). 也就是说把 “了”和”一本”全部扔掉。
That is to say, the “le” and “yi ben” shall be deleted. 第二例,她去了一次颐和园
Example two, “ta qu le yi ci yiheyuan” (she went to Summer Palace at once) 那么这个怎么否定呢?它的否定是,她没有去颐和园,也就是说”了”和”没有”全部不要
What is the negation of this sentence? “ta mei you qu yiheyuan” (she did not go to Summer Palace). That is to say, the “le” and “yi ci” shall be deleted. 这样就是可以了 有的时候也可以直接在动词前加上”没有”删去”了”
That is okay. Sometimes, the “mei you” can be added before a verb without “le” 但是后面呢,必须加上一个跟其结构类似的分句
However, a clause that has a similar structure with it shall be added after this sentence. 而且呢,后一个分句中的数量啊要比前一个 中的这个数量要小。
And the number of the latter clause shall be smaller than in the previous one. 我们来看例子就比较清楚了,例一 我们等了两个小时。
Let us see some examples to make it clear. Example one, “wo men deng le liang ge xiao shi” (we have waited for two hours). 那么这个句子怎么否定呢?
What is the negation of this sentence?
那么我们看一看怎么否定,我们应该说什么呢?我们没有等两个小时
How to say it? “wo men mei you deng liang ge xiao shi” (we did not wait for two hours). 也就是把”了”去掉,加上”没”或者”没有” 但是后面要注意,这个非常重要,我们
That is to say, the “le” is deleted and the “mei” or “mei you” is added here. Pay attention to the next part. It is important. “wo men 只等了一个小时,也就是说后面加上一个 数量结构,但是这个数量比前面那个数量要小
zhi deng le liang ge xiao shi” (we have only waited for one hour). An amount is added after it. The amount is smaller than the previous one. 第二例,昨天花了 二百元,二百块钱。
Example two, “zuo tian hua le er bai yuan, er bai kuai qian” (two hundred yuan was spent yesterday). 那么这个句子怎么否定呢?同样是,当然要加”没有”
What is the negation of this sentence? Likewise, the “mei you” shall be added 但是同时要删掉”了” “二百块钱”没有关系,保留
And the “le” shall be deleted. The “er bai yuan” is okay to keep. 后面一定要加上,不要忘了加上”只花了一百二十块钱”之类的 这样的话。
The “zhi hua le yi bai er shi kuai” (only one hundred and twenty yuan was spent) shall be added after the latter sentence. 那么这样呢,也就是说这个句子就可以成立了
And then this sentence will be right. 它就一个对比,后面一个”一百二十块”要比”二百块”要小,也就是注意
There is a comparison. The “yi bai er shi kuai” (one hundred and twenty yuan) added later shall be smaller than the “er bai kuai” (two hundred yuan). That is to say 这个数量要比前一个数量要小
The amount shall be smaller than the previous one. 那么这种用法呀多用于什么呢?辩解或者是纠错,也就是说它们是特别的说法
What does this usage be used for in general? Special expression of explanation or correction 使用的场合有限制
The usage of it is limited.


(二)着。
(II) zhe “着”表示行为动作的进行或状态的持续 我们来看两个例子,例如:同学们说着、
“zhe” represents the conduct of action or the continuation of the status. Let us see some examples. “tong xue men shuo zhe, 笑着 “说着”是说呢正在说,”笑”呢是正在笑,正在进行
Xiao zhe” (students are talking and laughing). The “shuo zhe” shows the action of talk is doing, so does “xiao”.
第 2 例子:教室里还亮,亮着灯。
Example two: “jiao shi li hai liang zhe deng” (the light in the classroom is still lighting). 这个”亮着灯”是表示呢这个亮的持续 状态的持续。
The “liang zhe deng” shows the continuation of lighting. 1.
1. “着”与动词和形容词 (1)持续动词可以带”着”。
“zhe”, verb and adjective (1) Continuous verbs can be followed by “zhe” 例如 我们来看一下,第 1 个例子:大家等着你呢!这个”等”是什么?”等”是个动词
For example, “da jia deng zhe ni ne!” (everyone is waiting for you). What is the “deng”. A verb 它是一个持续的动词,就是可以持续一段时间 第 2
It is a continuous verb. Example two 个:你穿着羽绒服不热吗?这个”穿”也是一个持续动词,所以加上”着”没有问题 第
: “ni chuan zhe yu rong fu bu re ma?” (Do you feel hot to wear a down jacket?) The “chuan” is also a continuous verb. It is okay to be followed by the “zhe”. 2 个,趋向动词不能带”着”
Second, direction verbs shall not be followed by “zhe”
所谓趋向动词,”来””去”,”过来””过去”这样的动词是不能 带”着”的。
That is to say, direction verbs of “lai”, “qu”, “guo lai” and “guo qu” shall not be followed by “zhe”. 第 3 种,状态动词除了”爱”,注意这个是”爱”以外
Third, state verbs, except for the “ai” (love), “爱”是可以说”爱着什么”,其它的一般不能带”着” 第
shall not be followed by “zhe” in general. The “ai” can be followed by “zhe”, such as “ai zhe shen me” 4,关系动词”在、 是、 属于 拥有”等都不能带”着”。
Fourth, relation verbs of “zai, shi, shu yu, yong you” and so on shall not be followed by “zhe” 第 5 种是少数形容词
The forth one is some adjectives
哪些形容词呢?颜色形容词,注意是颜色方面的 形容词可以带”着”。
What are them? Some color adjectives can be followed by “zhe”. 比如说:小姑娘红着脸 跑出去了。
For example: “xiao gu niang hong zhe lian pao chu qu le.” (the little girl ran out with red cheeks.) “红”是一种颜色。
“hong” (red) is a color. 第 2 例:他黑着脸 一句话都没说就走了。
Example two: “ta hei zhe lian, yi ju hua dou mei shuo jiu zou le” (He did not say anything with his angry face and left). 这个”黑”也是一个颜色词
The “hei” is also a color word.
所以可以说”红着””黑着”,那么其它的颜色的形容词也不常加上”着”
The expression of “hong zhe” and “hei zhe” is okay. However, other color words are not followed by “zhe” in general. 注意,形容词啊绝大多数 不能带”着”。
Pay attention, most adjectives shall not be followed by “zhe”. 例如,我们看一看,第 1 例:她高兴着唱起来了。
For example, “ta gao xing zhe chang qi lai le” (she was singing happily). 这是外国学习者 最容易犯的一个错误,这个地方不可以加”着”
This is a common mistake. The “zhe” shall not been used here. 错误就在这儿,应该说什么呢?她高兴地,用”地” 唱起来了。
What is the right one? “ta gao xing de chang qi lai le”. “de” shall be used here rather than “zhe” 第 2 例,我们快乐着生活在这里,那么这个
Example two, “wo men kuai le zhe sheng huo zai zhe li” (we live here happily), then the
“快乐着”也是不可以,应该说什么呢?”快乐地”就可以了
“kuai le zhe” is also not okay. What is the right expression? “kuai le de” is okay. 也就是说形容词啊绝大多数是不能带”着”的,这个要特别注意 2.
That is to say, most adjectives shall not be followed by “zhe”. Please pay attention to it. 2. “动词+着”的否定。
Negation of “verb + zhe” (1)”动词+着+ (名词)”的否定啊一般是在动词前加上”没”或是”没有”
(1) The negation of “verb +zhe +(noun)” is to add “mei” (no) or “mei you” (not) before a verb. 但是一定要删去,删去”着”,不要忘了 我们看两个例子,第
And the “zhe” shall be deleted. Please remember it. Let us see some examples. Example 1 个:教室里开着灯 “开着”,那么它的否定是什么呢?应该说:教室里
one: “jiao shi li kai zhe deng” (the classroom is lighting). And then what is the negation of it? “jiao shi li 没(有)开,注意这个”着”一定要扔掉 第
mei (you) kai…”. The “zhe” shall be deleted. Example 2 例:桌子上放着书 “放着”,那么它的否定是什么呢?桌子上没(有)放书。
two: “zhuo zi shang fang zhe shu” (a book is placed on the table). What is the negation of it? “zhuo zi shang mei (you) fang shu” (a book is not placed on the table). 也就是这个”着” 也应该否定的时候加上”没(有)”扔掉”着”
The “zhe” shall be deleted and the “mei (you) shall be added in the negation of this sentence. 但是”动词+着+数量(名)”的否定啊实在动词前加上”没(有)”
However, the negation of “verb + zhe +amount (noun)” shall be added with a “mei (you)” 或者”没”,同时呢删去”着”和”数量”,这个更复杂一点 例如,我们来看一下,第
or “mei”. And the “zhe” and amount shall be deleted. It is more complex. Let us see some examples. 1 例:黑板上写着一行字,写着
Example one: “hei ban shang xie zhe yi hang zi” ( a line of words is on the blackboard)
一行字,有”着”有”数量”,那么这个句子的否定是什么呢?
There are the “zhe” and amount word. What is the negation of this sentence? 这个句子的否定啊,就是,是这样的,黑板上没(有),加上”没(有)”
The negation of it is, “hei ban shang mei (you)…” the “mei (you) is added here. 动词”写”,但是呢后面的”着”扔掉了 还要注意就是这个”一行”
And the “zhe” after it is deleted. Pay more attention to the amount word of “yi hang” (a line) 数量也要同时扔掉,也就是把”着”和”数量”同时扔掉 再加上”没(有)”就可以了。
It shall be deleted as well. That is to say, the “zhe” and amount shall be deleted and added with “mei (you). 第 2 个例子:孩子手里拿着一个玩具。
Example two: “hai zi shou li na zhe yi ge wan ju” (the child is holding a toy). 拿着一个玩具 那么这个”拿着”数量”一个玩具”,它的否定是什么呢?
“na zhe yi ge wan ju” (Holding a toy). What is the negation of it? 孩子手里上没(有),加上”没(有)”,加上动词,但是”着”
“hai zi shou shang mei (you)…”(the child is not…). The “zhe” 扔掉,还有”一个”数量也扔掉,应该说:孩子手里没有拿玩具
is deleted here. And the amount of “yi ge” is also deleted. The right expression shall be: “hai zi shou li mei you na wan ju” 不能说:孩子手里没有拿一个玩具,没有拿着一个玩具。
Rather than “hai zi shou li mei you na yi ge wan ju, mei you na zhe yi ge wan ju.) 这样的都是错误的 都是错误的。
Both of them are wrong, wrong. (2)有些”动词+着+(名词)”可以用什么呢?”别””不要”
(2) some “verb +zhe + (noun)” can be matched with “ bie” “bu yao” (do not) 进行否定,那么这样的否定呢一般用于祈使句 就是希望或者禁止别人做什么事情的时候
用这样的说法。
for negation. These negations are often used in imperative sentences. When somebody wishes or forbid others to do something, these negations are used. 我们来看两个例子,第 1 个:看着我!动词加”着”,对吧?看着我!
Let us see some examples. The first one: “kan zhe wo!” (look at me). The verb is followed by the “zhe”. 那么它的否定是什么呢?它的否定是用”别”,别看着我!或者是 不要看着我!再看第
What is its negation? The “bie” is used for the negation of it. “bie kan zhe wo!” or “bu yao kan zhe wo!” (Do not look at me). Turn to example 2 例:手机关着! 动词加上”着”,对吧?那么它的否定是什么呢?手机别关着!
two: “shou ji guan zhe!” (The phone is off). It is the verb plus “zhe”, right? And then what is the negation of it? “shou ji bie guan zhe!” 或者:手机不要关着! 就是用”别”或者是”不要”。
Or: “shou ji bu yao guan zhe” (Do not keep the phone off). The “bie” or “bu yao” is used here. 那么这样的说法都是呢 祈使句,就是要求或者是禁止别人做什么事情的时候用这种否定
This expression is imperative sentence. When somebody wishes or forbid others to do something, these negations are used. (3)还有一些”动词+着+(名词)”可以用”不”否定,表示什么呢?假设条件
(3) some phrases of “verb + zhe + (noun)” can be denied by “bu” (no). What does it represent? Assumptions 就是一种假设,不是真实的。
It is an assumption and not real. 好,我们来看两个例子 第 1 例:不坐着就不舒服。
Okay, let us see some examples. Example one: “bu zuo zhe jiu bu shu fu” (it is uncomfortable when you are not sitting). 那么显而易见,”坐着”的前边是用”不”进行否定
是吧,”不坐着”什么意思呢?就是如果不坐着
Obviously, the “zuo zhe” is denied by “bu”
Right? What does the “bu zuo zhe” mean? It means that it is uncomfortable 就不舒服的意思,”不坐着”是一种什么呢?假设的情况 第
if you are not sitting. What is the “bu zuo zhe”? It is an assumption. Example 2 例:刚才她不等着你,就不会迟到!这个
two: “gang cai ta bu deng zhe ni, jiu bu hui chi dao!” (She will not be late if she did not wait for you) 用”不”否定”等着”,那么这个是什么呢?这个意思就是说,如果
The “bu” is used to deny the “deng zhe”. What does it mean? It means that if 她刚才她不等着你,就不会迟到,也是一种假设的情况
if she did not wait for you, she will not be late. It is also an assumption. 假设的情况,这种情况下都可以用什么呢?用”不” 进行否定,用”不”。
What shall be used to deny here? “bu”. (三)过 “过”表示过去曾经发生过某一行为动作或出现过某种
(III) guo “guo” represents that a certain action or a certain state occurred or appeared in the past, 状态,但是呢现在这种行为动作不再进行或者状态不再存在 例如,我们来看两个例子,第
but now this action is no longer been conducted or the state no longer exists. Let me show you some examples. 1 个:我们去过北京 什么意思呢?这个”过”什么意思呢?它就相当于说以前某一时间
Example one: “wo men qu guo Beijing.” (We went to Beijing at once). What does the “guo” mean? It refers to sometime in the past. “去”发生了,但是呢现在不在北京 是一种经历,或者说是一种经验。
“qu” is done. The person said is not in Beijing now. it is an experience. 第 2 例:妈妈学过半个月汉语 这个”学过”什么意思呢?就是学汉语
Example two: “mama xue guo ban ge yue han yu” (my mom learnt Chinese for half a month.) what does the “xue guo” mean? It means that learning Chinese 这个事情呀很早以前发生过,但是呢现在不学习
was done in the past. However, it is not doing now. 不学习汉语,它是一种经历或者是一种经验。
It is an experience. 2 对不起,我说了 2,应该是 1。
2 “dui bu qi, wo shuo le” (sorry, I have said it) 2 shall be 1. >> 没事儿
>> 哎呀,我走心了。
>> it is okay
>> Oh, I am distracted. >> 还经常对呢
>> 我喝一口水吧,不好意思 哎
>> It is right in general
>> Please allow me to drink a water, sorry, oh [声响] [Sound] [声响] [Sound] >> 好
>> Okay >> 1.
>>1. “过”与动词和形容词。
“guo”, verb and adjective 汉语中的动词 形容词绝大多数可以带”过”,但是呢也有一些不能带
Most verbs and adjectives can be followed by “guo” in Chinese. However, some of them cannot. (1)认知意义动词”知道、 了解、 懂、
(1) Cognitive verbs “zhi dao (know), liao jie, dong (understand), 明白、 认识、 忘、 忘记” 这些呢都不能带”过”。
ming bai, ren shi, wang, wang ji (forget)” cannot be followed by “guo”. (2) 一次性动词”死、 活、 出生、 毕业、 放学、
(2) One-time verbs of “si (die), huo(live), chu sheng(born), bi ye(graduate), fang xue(after school), 褪色、 出发”等 它表示什么呢?人或者事物啊存在期间呢只有一次
tui se(fade), chu fa(departure)”. What do they represent? People or things are only one time to exist 不可能重复发生,像”死”啊”活”啊人的一生只有一次,”毕业”在一所大学里
And they cannot occur repeatedly. Words like “si”, “huo”, “bi ye” 或者学校里呢只能有一次,”出发”也是一样,所以这样的动词后面呢都不能用”过”
Occur one time in general as well as “chu fa”. Therefore, these verbs shall not be followed by “guo”. (3)非谓形容词 就是不能做谓语的形容词”男、
(3) Non-predicate adjectives Non-predicate adjectives of “nan (male), 女、 彩色、 黑白”等 不能带”过”。
Nv (female), cai se (color) and hei bai (black and white) shall not be followed by “guo”. (4)状态形容词就是我们 前面讲过的”雪白、 草绿、
(4) State adjectives, which have been talked by us. State adjectives of “xue bai (white), cao lv (green), 白花花、 红彤彤 慢悠悠”啊都不能带”过”。
Bai hua hua (white), hong tong tong (red), man you you (slow)” shall not be followed by “guo”. 2.
2. “动词+过”的否定 “动词+过”的否定一般在动词前加上”没(有)”
In the negation of “verb +guo”, the “mei (you)” is often added before a verb.
但也有一些特殊的情况。
However, there are also some special conditions. (1)
(1)
“动词+过+(名词)”的否定是在动词前加上”没(有)”,这个很简单,我们看一下
In the negation of “verb + guo + (noun)”, the “mei (you)” is added before a verb. It is easy. Let us have a look. 这本书我看过。
“zhe ben shu wo kan guo” (I have read this book)。 那么,这本书我没看过,直接加上 “没(有)”这个”过”还保留,这个是很简单的
And then, “zhe ben shu wo mei kan guo” (I have not read this book). The “mei (you)” is added here. The “guo” is kept. It is easy for you. (2)”动词+过+数量(名)”
(2) “Verb + guo + amount (noun)” 是在动词前加上”没有”,但是数量要删去
The “mei you” is added before a verb without the amount word. 哦,要翻页了吗,啊
Oh, is it time to flip? Ah
>> 第二个例句没讲。
>> The second example did not been talked. >> 哦,对,不是,那个句子我故意把它放掉了。
>>Oh, right. No, that sentence was passed by me deliberately. >> 哦
>> Oh
>> 我没翻页,哎
>> I did not flip, oh 糟糕,我想省一个句子 因为它简单,直接说一下一个就完事了 那重新来对吧。
Oh my god, I want to pass one sentence because it is easy. Let us talk about it again. >> 这个也重新来。
>>This one shall be talked again as well. >> 好 2.
>> Okay 2. “动词+过”的否定 “动词+过”的否定一般是在动词前加上”没”或者”没有”
In the negation of “verb + guo”, the “mei” or “mei you” shall be added before a verb
但是也有一些特殊的情况。
However, there are also some special conditions. (1)”动词+过+(名词)”的否定是在动词前加上”没(有)”
(1) In the negation of “verb + guo + (noun)”, the “mei (you)” is added before a verb
这个很简单,我们看一下这个例子:这本书我看过。
It is easy. Let us see the example: “zhe ben shu wo kan guo” (I have read this book). 直接在”看过”的前边加上”没(有)” 就可以了,所以不多说
It is okay to add the “mei (you)” before the “kan guo”. There is no need to say it one more time. (2) “动词+过+数量(名)”是在动词前加上”没”或者”没有”
(2) In the phrase of “verb + guo + amount (noun)”, the “mei” or “mei you” is added before a verb 但是”数量”要删去,这个要特别注意,要删去这个 “数量”。
But “amount” shall be deleted. Please pay attention to it. The amount shall be deleted. 我们看一下例子就比较清楚,比如说第 1
Let me show you some examples to make it clear. Example one
例:我们踢过一次球 踢过一次球,数量,那么这个句子的否定
: “wo men ti guo yi ci qiu” (we played ball once). And then the negation of it 是怎么样否定呢?就是说我们”没(有)”,加上”没(有)”,”过”还保留
What is the negation of it? Add “mei (you) and keep “guo” 但是这个”一次”应该删去,所以呢,我们没有踢过球
But delete the “yi ci”. “wo men mei you ci guo qiu” (we did not play ball). 这样的句子是,是对的 (3)
This sentence is right. (3) “动词+过+一+量词+(名词)”有时可以在动词
In the “verb + guo + quantifier + (noun), “mei” or “mei you” is added before a verb
前加上”没”或者”没有”进行否定,但是呢,”一”要
sometimes to deny. However, the “yi” (one) shall be 重读,就是读得很重,强调没有发生过某种行为动作
Emphasized to stress that the action did not occur 我们来看一个例子:他请过一次假
Let me show you an example: “ta qing guo yi ci jia” (he asked for a left once). 那么这个句子怎么否定呢?我们说:他没(有),加上”没(有)”
What is the negation of this sentence? We say that, “ta mei (you)…” The “mei (you)
再,”过”保留,对吧?然后:他没(有)请过
is added and the “guo” is kept. And then: “ta mei (you) qing guo ‘一次假,所以这个”一”的前,上面有个 重读,要重读,就是”一次”要重读
yi ci jia”. The “yi” shall be emphasized 强调他没有请过假
To stress that he did not ask for a left

 


三.
III. 语气助词,用在句末表示语气的词叫做语气助词 那么语气助词主要有”了、
Modal particle, the word used at the end of a sentence is called modal particle. Model particles include “le, 吗、 呢、 吧、 啊”等 例如,第一个:这件衣服多漂亮啊!
ma, ne, ba, a” and so forth. For example, “zhe jian yi fu duo piao liang a!” (how beautiful the cloth is!) 第二例,吃什么呀,快走吧,这个”呀”、 “吧”都是
Example two: “chi shen me ya, kuai zou ba.” The “ya” and “ba” here are modal particles. (一)了,语气助词”了”用在句末 提醒出现新情况,注意,它表示
The modal particle of “le” that is used in the end of a sentence reminds a new situation. Note, it represents that 出现了新的情况,这是它的意思。
Some new situations occur. This is the meaning of it. 我们看两例例子。
Let me show you some examples. 第一例,上课了 上课就是什么意义呢,不是上课完成了实现了,而是提醒他人上课这个是一个
Example one, “shang ke le” (class is beginning). What does it mean? It means that a new situation of 上课是一种新的情况出现。
class beginning occurs. 第二个,花开了 这个花开了,开不是完成,也不是实现的意思。
Example two, “hua kai le” (flowers start to come out). The “hua kai le” does not represent the accomplishment or achievement 它是告诉人们,花现在开了 这是一种新情况,别人没有注意到,所以呢 有提醒的意思。
but the new situation of that flowers start to come out. It is used to remind someone else who does not note the truth of flowers. 1.
1. 句末必需带”了”的情况 “了”表示出现新的情况,还有成句的作用
The condition that “le” is added in the end of a sentence the “le” represents a new situation and makes a sentence complete. 也就是说这些有些句子句末必须要用”了”,没有这个”了”这个句子就站不住,或者这个句-
子就是错的
That is to say, the “le” shall be added in the end of these sentences. If not, these sentences will be incomplete or wrong. 第一种情况就是太…了,这个”太” 和”了”一起使用。
The first condition is “tai…le” (it is so…). The “tai” is used together with the “le”. 程度副词”太”修饰形容词短语或动词短语,句末经常出现”了”
A “le” is usually used in the end of a sentence when the adverb of degree of “tai” modifies adjective phrase or verb phrase. 比如说我们看一下两个例子 这件衣服太漂亮了,太漂亮了。
For example, “zhe jian yi fu tai piao liang le, tai piao liang le.” (This dress is so beautiful, so beautiful). 第二个,你也太不认真了,那么经常是一起 一起使用。
Example two, “ni ye tai bu ren zhen le” (you are so carefulless). A “tai” is used together with a “le” in general. 程度补语第二种情况,程度补语后
The second condition of complements of degree, a “le” is added after 要带”了”,程度补语后面也常常要带”了”,比如说第一个例子,孩子把我气死了
有”了”。
a complement of degree. For example, there is a “le” in the sentence of “hai zi ba wo qi si le” (the child is making my blood boil). 那边的风景好看极了,”极”是程度补语,所以也有”了” 第三种情况,形容词”大、
“na bian de feng jing hao kan ji le” (The scenery over there is amazing). The “ji” is a complement of degree, so the “le” is added here as well. The third condition, when adjectives of “da, 小、 高、 低、 深、 浅 宽、 窄、 肥、 瘦、
xiao, gao, di, shen, qian, kuan, zhai, fei, shou, 长、 短”等做结果补语的时候,后面呢常常要带”了”
chang, duan” and so on are used as complements of result, a “le” is usually used. 表示呢不符合某种标准,比如说我们来看两个例子,第一个,衣服做大了
“大了”就超过了这个
It is used to show that something is not in standard. Let me show you some examples. Example one, “yi fu zuo da le” (the dress is too big) 标准,不合适,所以这个”大了”。
It is too big to fit. 坑挖深了 就是挖得太深了,不符合要求不符合标准,是这样的意思 2.
“keng wa shen le” means that the hole is too deep. It does not meet the requirements or standards. 2. 句末”了”所在句子的否定 句末有”了”的句子的否定和句中
the negation of a sentence with a “le” in the end. The negation of it is the same as a sentence “了”的一样,都是在动词前加上”没”或”没有”,删去”了”,注意一定要
不要忘了把”了”扔掉。
with “le” in the middle of it. Add “mei” or “mei you” and delete “le”. Attention, please delete “le”. 我们来看两个例子,我复习了
Let us see some examples. “wo fu xi le” (I go to review) 这个”了”,那么它的否定是什么呢,我加”没有”,把”了”扔掉
What is the negation of it? Add “mei you” and delete “le” 第二个,昨天下雨了,它的否定是昨天没有下雨
Example two, “zuo tian xia yu le” (it rained yesterday). The negation of it is “zuo tian mei you xia yu” (it did not rain yesterday). 加”没有”,把”了”扔掉,是这样 3.
Add “mei you” and delete “le”. That is it. 3. 两个”了”的同时使用 表示”实现”的”了”和出现新情况的”了”可以出现在一个句子中
the usage of two “le”. The “le” that represents achievement and the “le” represents a new situation can be used in one sentence 组成”主语+动词+了+数量+(名词)+了”这样的句子
to form a sentence of “subject + le +amount + (noun) +le” 例如,我们来看两个例子,这本书我看了 三天了,两个”了”。
Let me show you some examples. “zhe ben shu wo kan le san tian le”. (I have read this book for three days.) There are two “le” in this sentence. 弟弟学了两年汉语了 两个”了”同时使用,一个是在动词后,一个是在句子后,动词和句子后
“di di xue le liang nian han yu le” (my brother has learnt Chinese for two years). This is the usage of two “le” in one sentence. One is in the end of this sentence; another is in the end of a verb. 那么”主语+动词+了 +数量+(名词)+了”中的”数量”
The “amount” of “subject + verb +le + (noun) +le” 一般是表示已经完成的数量或行为动作持续的时间
generally indicates the number of completed or behavioral actions for the duration of time
那么如果没有后续句,所谓后续句就后面出现
So if there is no follow-up sentence, the new clause will appear after 新的小句,那么含有行为动作还要继续下去的意思
the so-called follow-up sentence, which means that the action will continue.
我们来看一下例子,第一例,他学了三年汉语了
Let us see some examples. Example one, “ta xue le san nian han yu le” (he has learnt Chinese for three years). 学了三年汉语了是什么意思呢,就是到说话的时候 已经学了三年,这个三年已经完成
What does the “xue le san nian han yu le” mean? It means that the learning of three years has been finished. 而且呢还要学下去,继续下去 就是要继续下去的意思
And the learning of Chinese will be continued in the future. 再看一个例子,他们喝了两个小时酒了
One more example, “ta men he le liang ge xiao shi jiu le” (they have drunk for two hours) 那么这个数量是什么呢,两个小时是表示喝了这个事情 已经发生了两个小时,而且呢
What is the amount of it? “liang ge xiao shi” (Two hours) represents that the drinking has been done for two hours, and it 还要继续喝下去,继续喝下去 (二)吗
will be continued in the future. (II) ma “吗”用在是非问句它的末尾表示疑问 例如:你吃了吗?他是留学生吗?
The “ma” is used in the end of a sentence to represent a question. For example: “ni chi le ma? Ta shi liu xue sheng ma? (Did you eat? Is he a foreign student?) 应该注意的是,”吗”只能用于是非问句 不能用在正反问句、
It shall be noted that “ma” cannot be used in positive and negative questions, especially question and choice questions but yes-no questions. 特指问句和选择问句中 比如说下面的两个例子,第一个,你吃什么吗?
For example, “ni chi shen me ma?” 这个句子是错的,为什么呢,这是一个特指疑问句,有”什么”
这样的词,所以不能用”吗”。
This sentence is wrong. Why? It is an especially question. The “ma” shall not be used in an especially question that is added with “shen me”. 那么应该说什么呢,你吃什么呢?用”呢”就没有问题了 第二例,明天下不下雪吗?
What is the right expression? “ni chi shen me ne? (What do you want to eat?) The “ne” here is okay. Example two, “ming tian xia bu xia xue ma?” 这个句子呢也不行也不成立,为什么呢,这是一个正反问句,下或不下
This sentence is also wrong. Why? Because it is a positive and negative question, 所以呢不能用”吗”,应该用什么呢,用”呢”,明天下不下雪呢?
这样的句子就可以了,就成立。
a “ma” shall not be used here but a “ne”. The sentence of “ming tian xie bu xia xue ne?” is okay. “吗”还经常用在反问句中 那么它的肯定形式表示否定的意思,否定形式表示肯定的意思
A “ma” is usually used in rhetorical questions. The affirmative form represents negation. The negative form represents affirmation. 我们来看两个例子,第一例,你会吗?
“会”是一种肯定,它的意思是什么呢,”你不会”是一种否定
Let us see some examples. Example one, “ni hui ma?”
“hui” is an affirmation. What does it mean? “ni bu hui”, a negation. 第二例,这东西能吃吗,也是一种肯定,但是意思是什么呢,这东西
Example two, “zhe dong xi neng chi ma”. What does it mean? It 不能吃,是一种否定的意思 (三)呢
is inedible. It is negation. (III) ne 语气助词”呢”用法很复杂,而且呢 不同的用法表示的意义常常也不同。
The usage of “ne” is complex. Different usages represent different meanings. 1.
1. 表示缓和语气 (1)”呢”用在特指问句、
moderate tone (1) when a “ne” is used in especially questions, 选择问句、 正反问句和反问句中 有缓和语气的作用,比如说第一例,咱们吃什么呢?
Choice questions, positive and negative questions and rhetorical questions, it plays the role of easing the tone. For example, “wo men chi shen me ne?” (what do we eat?) 这个”呢”就有一种比较缓和语气的作用 第二例,你找谁呢?这个”呢”也是一样
The “ne” here plays a role of easing the tone. Example two, “ni zhao shui ne?” (Who are you looking for?) the “ne” also plays a role of easing the tone. 注意”呢”不能用在是非问句中 下面的说法就有问题,比如说第一例,明天天气好呢?
Pay attention, a “ne” shall not be used in non-questions. The following expressions are wrong. Example one, “ming tian tian qi hao ne?” 这个”呢”就是错了,这句话不能说,应该说什么呢?
明天天气好吗?用”吗”,为什么呢,这是一个是非 问句。
The “ne” here is wrong. What is the right one?
“ming tian tian qi hao ma?” (Will the weather is fine tomorrow?) A “ma” shall be used here instead of “ne”, becaused it is a non-question. 同样的第二例,汉语难呢?也错,那么应该说什么呢?
Likewise, “han yu nan ne?” it is also wrong. And then what is the right expression? 汉语难吗?也是一个是非问句,所以呢是非问句都要用”吗” 不能用”呢”。
“han yu nan ma?” it is also a non-question. A “ma” shall be used in a non-question instead of a “ne”. (2)”呢”用在句中停顿的地方 用于列举或对举,也有缓和语气的作用。
(2) “ne” is used in in the pause of a sentence to list or to cite and ease the tone. 比如说第一例,我呢 停一停,后面一个逗号表示停顿,你就不用管了
For example, “wo ne,” a pause, “ni jiu bu yong guan le” (as for me, never mind) 第二例,咱们几个人分一下工,小张呢,后面有个”呢”停一下
擦黑板,我呢,又停一停,扫地,小刘呢
Example two, “zan men ji ge ren fen yi xia gong, xiao zhang ne…” there is a “ne” to pause,
“ca hei ban, wo ne…” one more pause, “sao di, xiao liu ne, 摆桌子,那么都是用在所谓的停顿,有这个逗号 表示停顿的地方,那么它同样有一种什么呢
bai zhuo zi”. One comma represents a pause. What is the function of it? 缓和语气的作用,比较委婉的说法 2.
Ease the tone. It is a euphemism. 2. 表示行为动作进行 口语中的”呢”可以表示行为动作进行
The conduct of an action a “ne” in spoken Chinese can be used to represent the conduct of an action 我们来看举个例子,A:你干什么呢?
Let us see some examples. A: “ni gan shen me ne?”
这个”呢”什么意思呢,意思是说你在干什么,你正在干什么?
What does the “ne” mean? What are you doing? B回答洗衣服呢,这个”呢”是什么意思呢,就是
B answer “xi yi fu ne” (Wash clothes) What does the “ne” mean? 在洗衣服,所以这两个”呢”都有表示动作进行的意思 3.
Washing clothes. These two “ne” have the meaning of doing. 3. 名词或者短语加呢 可以构成问句,意思是什么呢,”在哪儿”或”怎么样”等
Add a noun or a phrase with a “ne” to form a question. What is the meaning of it? “zai na er” (where)or “zen me yang” (how about), etc. 比如我们看下例子:我的帽子呢?我的帽子是一个名词短语
后面加上”呢”加一个问号就是一个问句
Let us see the following example: “wo de mao zi ne?” (where is my hat?) “wo de mao zi” (my hat) is a noun phrase. When it is added with a “ne” and a question mark, it will be a question. 它的意思相当于”我的帽子在哪儿?”,是这个意思
It means “wo de mao zi zai na er?” (Where is my hat?) 第二个,刘老师呢?刘老师是一个名词,加上”呢”以后相当于”刘老师在哪儿?”
它是这样的意思。
Example two, “liu lao shi ne?” (Where is Mr. Liu?) “Liu lao shi” (Mr.Liu) is a noun. When it is added with a “ne”, it will become a question. “Liu lao shi zai na er?” (Where is Mr. Liu?). That is it. 4.
4. 表示提醒对方注意 “呢”用于陈述句中,含有”提醒对方注意”的意思
Remind each other’s attention a “ne” has the meaning of remind when it is used in a declarative sentence. 比如说第一例,北京大着呢!
For example, “Beijing Da zhe ne!” (Beijing is so big) 大着呢,从南到北开车需要两个小时,大着呢加上”呢”是什么呢,有一种提醒 对方注意。
It will take two hours when you drive from the south to the north of it. A “ne” here is used to remind. 第二例,电影八点才开始呢!
这个”呢”同样是有提醒,就是说有这样的意思,你忘了吗?我告诉你
Example two, “dian ying ba dian cai kai shi ne!” (The film will start on eight.)
The “ne” is also used to remind. Did you forget? Let me tell you 这样的意思,所以呢不用着急,所以这个”呢”就是一种提醒
“suo yi ne bu yong zhao ji”(Don’t be hurry). The “ne” here is also used to remind.

 


 

(四)吧。
(IV) ba “吧”有缓和语气的作用 多用于祈使句,也可以用于是非问句,还可以用于句中停顿的地方
1.
“ba” is used to ease the tone and usually used in imperative sentences, yes-no questions or pause part of a sentence.
1. 用于祈使句。
In imperative sentences 祈使句中常常用”吧” 我们来看两个例子,第一个例子:快回去吧 要不你妈该着急了。
A “ba” is frequently used in imperative sentences. Let us see some examples. Example one: “kuai hui qu ba, yao bu ni ma gai zhao ji le.” (Go back or your mother will be anxious.) 快回去吧,这是一个祈使句,所以呢用”吧”
“kuai hui qu ba” is an imperative sentence, so a “ba” is used here.
把门关上吧!也是个祈使句,所以也是用”吧”。
“ba men guan shang ba!” (close the door) is also an imperative sentence, so a “ba” is also used here. 第二呢,用于是非问句 “吧”可以用于是非问句。
Second, in yes-no questions 比如说第一个例子 昨天很热吧?第二个:你学过汉语吧?这都是一个,两个是非问句
For example, “zuo tian hen re ba?” (Was it hot yesterday?) Example two: “ni xue guo han yu ba?” (Did you learn Chinese?) They are yes-no questions. 应该注意的是,”吗”和”吧”都可以用于 是非问句,前面我们说过了啊,但是意思是不同的
It shall be noted that “ma” and “ba” can be used in yes-no question. We have talked it in previous. However, their meanings are different. 用”吧”的句子含有揣测的意思 所谓揣测就是不能肯定,带有猜测的意思
The sentence of “ba” has the meaning of speculation, which is not sure. 用”吗”的没有这种意思,我们比较一下。
The sentence of “ma” is not. Let us compare them. 比如看第一个例子:我们明天考试吗? 这是一个是非问句,明天考不考试是不知道,所以才问
Example one: “wo men ming tian kao shi ma?” (Is there an exam tomorrow?) This is a yes-no question. It is unknown for the exam of tomorrow. 第二例:我们明天考试吧? 这是什么意思呢?就是猜测明天考试,但是呢,又不能
Example two: “wo men ming tian kao shi ba?” (Will we have an exam tomorrow?) It is a speculation, which is not sure. 肯定,所以呢才问一问。
Therefore, here comes the question. 所以它们的意思呢,一个是 完全不知道,一个是呢,知道一点,但是呢不能肯定,所以呢
Hence, the first one means that people does not know anything about tomorrow’s exam. Another one means that people know a little about tomorrow’s exam but not sure of it. 后者用”吧”,前者用”吗”。
Therefore, the former is used with “ma” and the latter is used with “ba”. 3.
3. 用在句中停顿处。
In the pause of a sentence “吧” 也可以用在句中停顿的地方。
A “ba” can be used in the pause of a sentence. 比如说,我们来看一下例子
例一:就说我吧,这个后面有个逗号是停顿了,虽然学了三年汉语,但是说得还不太好
For example,
Example one: “jiu shuo wo ba,…” there is a comma to pause, “sui ran xue le san nian han yu, dan shi shuo de hai bu tai hao” (As for me, I cannot speak Chinese well although I have learnt it for three years.) 所以这个”吧”用在停顿的地方。
The “ba” is used in the pause of the sentence. ②走吧,有逗号
天在下雨;不走吧,这个”吧”的后面也有逗号,也是有停顿,所以又没有住的地方,真是-
②”zou ba,” (go) there is a comma
“tian zai xia yu; (it is raining); bu zou ba,” there is also a comma after the “ba”. It is a pause. “suo yi you mei you zhu de di fang, zhen shi-” (no room to live, it is -) 进退两难 这个连,这三个”吧”都是用在停顿的地方
“jin tui liang nan” (a dilemma). These three “ba” are used in the pause of the sentence. (五)啊 1.
(V) a 1. “啊”的语音形式和写法 这个”啊”呀比较复杂,复杂在什么地方呢?就是它的
Voice forms and wording of “a” The “a” is complex. It is 变化多端,它的写法也多样
changeable and varies in wordings. 在不同的,它受前面一个汉字的音节的影响 所以呢它的读音呢也发生变化。
It is influenced by the syllable of the preceding Chinese character, so its pronunciation also changes. 比如说,前一个音节,就是”啊”的前面这个汉字 如果是它的韵母是
Take an example of the previous syllable, namely, the preceding Chinese character of “a”, if its vowel is -i、 -ü 或者 -a、 -e、 -o
-i、 -ü or -a、 -e、 -o 这种情况下,它的读音都变成了什么呢?不是”啊”了,是 you
写的汉字呢是这个汉字”呀”。
What will its pronunciation be? It is not “a” but “you”
However, the Chinese character of it is still the “a”. 比如说:说话呀! 不可以说:说话啊!对吧,喝呀!喝
For example: “shuo hua ya!” (Speak, please!) It cannot be expressed as “shuo hua a!” “he ya! he” 是”呀”,不是写这个”啊” 如果前面一个汉字的声母
It is “ya” not “a”. If the initial and vowel of preceding Chinese character 韵母是 -u 或者是 –ao
is -u or –ao 这样的,那么它有读音要受它的影响发生变化,变成了 wa
And then its pronunciation will turn to “wa” 那么写的汉字呢,是这个汉字”哇”,比如说:多好哇!多好哇!
不是多好呀,也不是多好啊。
The Chinese character will be “wa”. For example, “duo hao wa! Duo hao wa!” (Wonderful!)
It is not “duo hao ya” or “duo hao a”. 如果是它的前面这个汉字的 这个结尾的
If the end voice of the preceding Chinese character 这个音是这个 -n 的,那么它读音发生变化
is –n, and then its pronunciation will turn to 要读成 na,比如说,写成了汉字呢是这个 “哪”。
“na”. for example, the Chinese character of “ne” turns to “na”. 所以呢,我们说:天哪!那么它的读音是”哪” 如果它的前一个汉字的这个韵母部分是
“tian na!” (oh my god). Its pronunciation is “na”. If the vowel of its preceding Chinese character is -ng 结尾的 那么它的发音呢又有发生变化了,变成了
ended with –ng, and then its pronunciation will turn to [ŋa] [ŋa],写成汉字还是”啊”。
[ŋa] [ŋa]. It is still “a” in the spelling of Chinese character. 比如说:你真忙啊! 如果是 (z)i、 (c)i、
For example: “ni zhen mang a!” (you are so busy). If they are (z)i, (c)i, (s)i 前一个汉字是 (z)i、 (c)i、 (s)i
的,那么,发音是 (z)i、 (c)i、 (s)i
(s)i, the previous Chinese characters are (z)i, (c)i, (s)i
And then its pronunciation is (z)i, (c)i, (s)i 的,那么它的 读音呢又要发生变化,那么变成了什么呢?变成 [za],
Its pronunciation changes to [za], [za] 那么写成汉字没有变化,还是”啊”。
There is no change in Chinese character. It is “a” 比如说:写字啊! 哪次啊!都是这样。
For example: “xie zi a! na ci a!” 如果它的前一个 汉字的读音是 (zh)i、 (ch)i、 (sh)i,那么它的
If the pronunciation of its preceding Chinese character is (zh)i, (ch)i, (sh)i, and then its “啊”的读音呢又发生变化了,它读什么呢? [za] 这个 [za] pronunciation of “a” will change. It will turn to [za]. 写成汉字还是”啊”,但是说的时候,我们说:吃啊!
你有事啊?那么由此可见呢,这个”啊”的
It is still “a” in Chinese character spelling. However, when you speak, you must say: “chi a! ni you shi a?” this shows that the 语音形式和书写啊都是比较复杂,比较复杂 2.
Voice forms and writing of “a” are complex. 2. “啊”的用法 (1)用在句末。
The usage of “a” (1) in the end of a sentence “啊”常用在陈述句、 祈使句的句末,也可以用在各种疑问句句末
例如,我们来看:你原来是这么个人哪!
“a” is usually used in the end of declarative sentences, imperative sentences and interrogative sentences. For example, “ni yuan lai shi zhe me ge ren na!” (That’s what you are). ②想去?走哇!这个 用的是,都是”啊”。
② “Xiang qu? Zou wa!” the “a” is used here. (2)用在句中停顿处
口语中,”啊”也可以用在句中停顿的地方,比如说,我们看两个例子,第一个:他这个人啊
(2) in the pause of the sentence
In spoken Chinese, the “a” can be used in the pause of the sentence. For example, “ta zhe ge ren a” 就是这个脾气!用在停顿的地方,有个停顿 ②春节的时候,鸡啊、
“jiu shi zhe ge pi qi!” The “a” is used in the pause of it. ② In spring festival, “ji a, 鱼啊、 肉啊 那么这个都有什么呢?停顿,都有停顿的地方
yu a, rou a” (chicken, fish, meat and so on). There is “a”, there is a pause in this sentence. 都没少吃!那么这个是用在停顿的地方
“dou mei shao chi!” it is used in the pause.