第二节 数词。
Section two numerals 一.
I. 数词的类别和作用 (一)数词的类别。
Types and Functions of Numerals (1) Categories of Numerals 数词可分为整数、 序数 倍数、 小数、 分数和概数等。
Numerals can be divided into integer, ordinal multiples, decimals, scores and approximate numbers, etc. 1.
1. 整数 没有零头的数目是整数。
Integers The number without fraction of is an integer 例如 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 两
For example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 two 还有一百 三千 一万 等
One hundred, three thousand, ten thousand and so forth “十”以下的数目直接称数,例如 1
Numbersbefore”ten”are directly called the number, for example what shall we 我们读作什么呢?yī,2 读作 èr,5 读作 wǔ,10
read 1?Yī, 2 is read as èr, 5 is read as wǔ, 10 读作 shí “十一” 到 “十九”的数目是先称说十位数”十” 再称说个位数。
is read asshí numbers from “eleven” to “nineteen” shall be read as “shí” plus single digit. 例如:11 读作 shíyī,12 读作
For example: 11 shall be read as shíyī, 12 shall be read shíèr “二十”以上的数目
as shíèr numbers after “er shi” (twenty) 先称说位数上的数字,然后呢再称说位数 例如:20
Call the number of digit and then call the dogit, for example: 20 我们读作是 èrshí 181 读作
is called asèrshí 181 is called as yìbǎibāshíyī 应该注意下面的情况。
Yìbǎibāshíyī the following conditions shall be noted. (1) 就是 “11-19” 中的的第一个 “1” 不读出来。
(1) the first “1” from 11 to 19 shall not be read out 例如 11 读作 “十一”,不读作 “一十一” (2)100
For instance, 11 is read as “shi yi” rather than “yi shi yi” (2) as for numbers after 100, 以上的数字 十位上的 “1” 要读出来。
The “1” in 10-digit shall be read out. 例如:111 这个 这个十位上的这个 “一” 啊就要读出来,是
For example: the “yi” in 10-digit of 111 shall be read out, just like “一十一”,不读作”一百十一” (3)数字末尾的 “0” 不管有几个 都不读出来。
“yi shi yi”, instead of “yi bai shi yi” (3) the “0” in the end of numbers shall not be read out regardless of its quantity. 例如,下面这个数读作什么呢?二十三万五千 (4)数字中间有”0″的,不管有几个
For example, what shall the number below be read? Er shi san wan wu qian (4) the “0” in the middle of numbers shall be read once regardless of its quantity. 只读一个,例如下面这个数我们读作什么呢? 十万零五十,中间只用一个零就可以了
For instance, what the following number shall be read? Shi wan ling wu shi, with one “0” be read (3) 数字末尾的 “0”
(3) The “0” in the end of numbers 不管有几个,都不读出来 例如下面这个数我们读作什么呢?二十三万五千
It shall not be read out regardless of its quantity. For example, what the following number shall be read? Er shi san wan wu qian (4)数字中间有 “0” 的,不管有几个,只读一个。
(4) the “0” in the middle of numbers shall be read one of them regardless of its quantity. 例如下面这个数我们 读作十万零五十,中间有 3 个零,但是我们说一个零就可以了
For instance, the following number shall be read as shi wan ling wu shi. There are three zero here, but only one zero is read. (5)”二” 和 “两” 的区别
(5) The difference between “er” and “liang” ① 小数、 分数、 序数中用 “二” 例如:二点二、
①”er” is used in decimal, fractional and ordinal number For example:“er dian er” (2.2) 三点零二、 二分之一、 第二等 ② 号码中用 “二”。
San dian ling er (3.02), er fen zhi yi (1/2), di er (second) and so forth ②“er” is used in numbers 例如:三幺二 ③ “两” 可以用在所有量词前面
For example: san yao er (312) ③“liang” can be used before all quantifiers “二” 呢只能用于传统的度量衡单位 量词前,例如:两个人、
“er” can be used before the traditional unit of measure, quantifiers, for example: liang ge ren (two people) 两件衣服、 两瓶酒 但是我们不说呢,二个人、 二件衣服、 二瓶酒
Liang jian yi fu (Two pieces of clothing), liang pin jiu (two bottles of wine). “er” shall not be used here to replace”liang” 我们可以说 二里 两里、 二斤 两斤 都可以的
However, er li, liang li, er jin, and liang jin are okay. (li is a unit of distance, and jin is a unit of weight in Chinese) ④”十、 百、 千、 万、 亿”
④“er” is used before “shi, bai, qian, wan, yi” (ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, One hundred million) 前 有的用 “二”,有的用 “两”,大致的情况我们看一下这个下面这个表格
And “liang” is also used sometimes. Let us see the following chart. 这个位数是十的时候,这个二在开头的时候,我们读二
When the digit is ten and two is placed at the beginning, we read it “er” 在其他的位置,在这个位置我们读什么呢? 也是读二,也就是说开头和其他位置这个是一样的
What shall we read it when it is placed in other position? “er” that is to say, it will be read as “er” wherever it is placed. 但是百,百是这样两种情况,一个是在开头的时候
While, there are two situations as for bai (thousand), one is at the beginning 既可以说二百,也可以说两百,也就二和两,都可以,但是在其他的位置,我们
“ er bai” or “liang bai” is okay. And when “er” is placed in other position, it 也可以用二,也可以用两,比如说:九千二百,九千两百六十,也是可以的
is also okay, for example: jiu qian er bai (9200) and jiu qian liang bei liu shi (9260) are okay as well. 而千呢?千是什么情况呢?位数是千的时候
What about qian (thousand)? When the number is in thousand-digit and 在开头的时候,我们是读作两,但是在其他位置的情况就不一样,比如说这个
不是开头,在中间的时候、
at the beginning, we read it “liang”. However, when it is in other position, for example, 后面的时候,我们读是什么呢? 二和两都是可以的,三万二千、
after this one, what shall we read? Er or liang is okay, san wan er qian 三万两千都可以 这个位数是万的时候,这个是没有区别
or san wan liang qian (32000) is okay. There is no difference when the digit is ten thousand. 不管是在开头,还是在 不是在开头,那么我们都读作两
We read it liang wherever it at the beginning or the end. 位数是亿的时候,那么情况又不一样了,在开头的时候
When the digit is one hundred million, it will be different. at the beginning, 读作两,在其他的位置的时候我们读什么呢?读二,比如:六百零二亿
liang is read. What shall we read when it is in other position? Er, for example: liu bai ling er yi (Six hundred and twenty million) 所以是情况呢又不一样了,因此呢,二和两这个是很复杂的 2.
It is different. Therefore, the usage of er and liang is complicated 2. 序数 表示次序的数词叫做序数汉语的序数有多种表达方法。
Ordinal numbers Numerals referring to order are called ordinal numbers There are many ways to express ordinal numbers in Chinese.
00:05:01,975 –> 00:05:08,330
例如:(1) 是第加上数词这样的说法
For example: (1) the expression of “di” added with numerals 我们看下面的例子,第一、 第二、 第三,就是第加上一个数词 表示序数。
Let us see the following examples, “di yi” (first), “di er” (second) and “di san” (third) are the expression of “di” added with numerals to representordinal numbers. (2)老加上数词也 可以表示序数,比如说老大、
(2) “lao” added with numerals can also be used to represent ordinal numbers. For example, “lao da”, 老二、 老三 这个是用于什么呢?排行,就是家里的这个子女的排行
“lao er” and “lao san” are used for the order of families 老大,注意,这个老大不可以说成是老一 只能用大。
“lao da”, pay attention please, the “lao da” shall not be read as “lao yi” 后面是老二、 老三都是用数词
“lao er” and “lao san” after it shall be used with numerals (3)初加上数词 例如:初一、
(3) “chu” plus numerls for example: “chu yi” 初二、 初三等 但是最高的时候,大家注意,是应该到初十为止
“chu er”, “chu san” and so forth. The maximum shall be ended after “chu shi” (4)就是数词加上名词 汉语的序数大量地采用”数词+名词”这样的办法
(4) Numerals plus nouns Chinese ordinal number adopted a lot of “numerals + nouns” 常见的有,说日期的时候我们说一号、 二号,一直到三十一号
It is commonly used in the date from the beginning to the end. 说这个月份的时候,一月、 二月,一直到十二月
And it also applies to months. 教学楼,我们说一教、 二教,这个教就是教学楼
As for “jiao xue lou” (teaching building), the “jiao” of “yi jiao” and “er jiao” refers to “jiao xue lou” (teaching building). 的意思,楼层呢是一层、 一楼、 二楼、
And floor, “yi ceng”, “yi lou” (floor 1st), “er lou” 二层,班级 一班、 二班、 三班、 四班,等级:一等、
“er ceng” (floor 2nd); class, “yi ban” (class one), “er ban” (class two), “san ban” (class three), “si ban” (class four); grade: “yi deng” or “yi ji” (grade one), 二等、 三等 一级、 二级、 三级、 四级等。
“er deng” or “er ji” (grade two), “san deng” or “san ji” (grade three), “si deng” or “si ji” (grade four), etc. 3.
3. 倍数 倍数就是数词加上倍就可以了,我们说
“bei shu” (Multiples) namely, numerals plus bei 想看一下下面的例子,1 倍、 2 倍、 3 倍、 100倍、 1000倍 4.
Let us see the following examples, 1 bei, 2 bei, 3 bei, 100 bei, 1000 bei 4. 小数,小数的读法是下面的情况,我们看第一例,读作呢
Decimal, the decimal reading is just as follows. Let us see the first example. It is read as 十一点五,第二例读作一百零一点八八
“shi yi dian wu (11.5), the second example is read as “yi bai ling yi dian ba ba” (101.88) 第三例读作什么呢?两千五百六十九点零
What shall the third example be read? “liang qian wu bai liu shi jiu dian ling” (2569.0) 一,注意,这里面很容易读错,这个零应该读出来 5.
First, pay attention please, it is easy to be misread. The “ling” (zero) here shall be read out 5. 分数 分数的读法,我们看一下例子就知道了,下面我们看一下第一例
Fractionfraction reading let us see some examples to make it clear. The first example 第一例读作什么呢?三分之一,注意,我们是先读下面
What shall the first example be read? “san fen zhi yi” (1/3), pay attention please, the number at the bottom shall be read first 先读下面,然后再读上面的。
And then the top number is read. 五分之二 也是先读下面这个数,然后读上面这个数。
So does “wu fen zhi er” (2/5). 十九分之五 也是读下面。
“shi jiu fen zhi wu” (5/19) as well. 这个分数读作什么呢?先读前面的
What does this fraction shall be read? Read the former number at first 二又五分之一 应该是这样读法。
“er you wu fen zhi yi” 百分之五十是先 读后面的,注意,然后再读前边这个数
The latter of “bai fen zhi wu shi” (50%) shall be read, pay attention please. 千分之六也是一样的情况,先读后面的,然后再读前面的 6.
So does “qian fen zhi liu” (6/1000) 6. 概数,(1)
General numbers, (1) 相邻两个数字连用,可以用来表示一个概数,比如说:一两个 五六斤、
Adjacent two numbers together can be used to represent a general number, for example: “yi liang ge, wu liu jin, 八九人、 十五六件、 两三百、 七八万
Ba jiu ren, shi wu liu jian, liang san bai, qi ba wan (2)几加上十、 百、 千、 万、
(2) “ji” plus “shi” (ten), “bai” (hundred), “qian” (thousand), “wan” (ten thousand), 亿 也可以表示概数,我们看几十年、 几百天、 几千块、
“yi yi” (one hundred million) can also be used to represent general numbers. In numbers of “ji shi nian”“ji bai tian”“ji qia kuai”, 几万人等 几也用在”十”后面表示概数,比如说:十几个
“ji wan ren”, etc., “ji” is also used to represent general numbers, for example: “shi ji ge”, 放在后面也可以,刚才是在前 在前边,放在后面,十几条、
It is okay to be put behind. “shi ji tiao” 二十几岁、 六十几斤,也可以表示概数 (3)用
“er shi ji sui” and “liu shi ji jin” can also be used to represent general numbers (3) represent “多” 表示概数 用 “多”表示概数,说法也比较复杂,主要有两种
general numbers with “duo” the expression of it is also complicated there are mainly two kinds 第一种是数词+量词+多,要注意的问题是什么呢?就是要注意这个数词
The first kind is numeral + quantifier+”duo” please pay attention to the quantifier here 这个数词是,我们说一般是,意思就是比 10 小
The quantifier is generally smaller than 10 或者是等于 10 的数,或者是不是十的倍数的
or the number which equals to 10, or the number which is not 这样的数,比如说:三斤多、 一年多、
the multiple of ten, such as: “san jin duo”, “yi nian duo”, 十五块多 所以我们是这样的用法,在量词的后面,注意这个位置
“shi wu kuai duo” it is the expression like this above. After the quantifier, pay attention to this position, 容易错,在量词后面加上多这个语序 第二种情况是数词+多+量词
The order of which is added with “duo” after quantifiers is easy to make mistake. The second condition is numeral+”duo”+quantifier 也就是说跟第一种情况的这个语序是相反的
这种情况下,它的数词是什么呢?是大于或者是等于
It is contrary to the first condition.
What is the numeral in this condition? Greater than or equal to 10,也就是比 10 大或者是等于 10 的这样的数词
10, namely, numerals which are greater than 10 or equal to 10 而且是 10 的倍数,这个要特别注意,比如说:十多年
五十多个,五十就是十的倍数了,五倍
and multiples of 10, pay attention please, for example: “shi duo nian”
“wu shi duo ge”, fifty is a multiple of ten, five times 一百多斤,那一百就是十的十倍了,所以这样的,它的语序是
“yi bai duo jin”, “yi bai” (one hundred) is ten times of ten. So what is the order 什么呢?是多加上量词,这种情况呢跟第一种是不一样的
of it? It is “duo” plus quantifier and is different from the first condition 应该注意下面的情况
Please pay attention to the following conditions. 就是数词为”十”的时候,量词为度量衡单位的时候
When the numeral is “shi” (ten) and the quantifier is unit of measurement 多可以出现在量词前,也可以出现在量词后 但是呢意思不同,我们看一下具体的例子。
“duo” can be placed before or after the quantifier. However, they have different meanings. Let us see some specific examples. 十多斤 我们也可以说十斤多,也就是说这个多
“shi duo jin” can also be replaced with “shi jin duo”. That is to say, the “duo” 可以在斤的前边,也可以在斤的后边 两种语序,但是呢它的意思是不同的
can be placed before or after the “jin”. Two orders represent different meanings. 十多米一样,和十米多它的意思不一样 那么十多斤表示什么呢?表示超过十斤,但是呢不到
The meaning of “shi duo mi” and ”shi mi duo” is different. and then, what does “shi duo jin” represent? It refers to the weight that is more than “shi jin” but less than 二十斤,十斤多表示超过十斤,但是不到十一斤 所以它的意思是不一样。
“er shi jin”. “shi jin duo” represents the weight that is more than “shi jin” but less than “shi yi jin”. Hence, the meanings of them two are different. 十多米表示超过十米,但是呢不到 二十米。
“shi duo mi” refers to the length that is more than “shi mi” (ten meters) but less than “er shi mi” (twenty meters). 十米多表示超过十米,但是呢不到十一米 所以它们的意思是相差是很大的
“shi duo mi” refers to the length that is more than “shi mi” (ten meters) but less than “shi yi mi” (eleven meters). Their meanings are quite different. (4)用”来”表示概数 ①
(4) Represent general numbers with “lai”① 就是数词+量词+来+形容词或者是名词
Numeral + quantifier + lai+adjective or noun 可以用来表示概数,要注意的问题也就是什么呢?数词是什么? 这个数词是小于或者等于
Used to represent general numbers One should be noted that what is numeral? The numeral here is less than or equal to 10 的数 或者不是 10 的倍数,注意,不是 10
10 or the numerals which are not multiples of 10, pay attention to the numeral that is not 的倍数这样子 数词,比如说:一斤来重
the multiple of 10, for example: “yi jin lai zhong” (weight of one jin or so) 三尺来长、 十一斤来重,这个十一斤,十一 就不是 10 的倍数。
“san chi lai chang, shi yi jin lai zhong, in the phrase of “shi yi jin”, “shi yi” (11) is not the multiples of 10 还有一种情况,就是第二种是 数词+来+量词,也就是说跟前面这个语序是相反的
Another condition is numeral +lai + quantifier, that is, the order of it is contrary to the former one. “来”跑到量词的前边,这个时候,它的数词是 大于或者是等于
When “lai” is placed before the quantifier, its numeral is greater than or equal to 10,而且要注意是 10 的倍数 比如说:十来个、
10, and the multiples of 10 shall be noted, for example: “shi lai ge(ten or so), 六十来天,六十是十的六倍 一百二十来斤,这个也是
liu shi lai tian (sixty days or so), sixty is ten times of six. “yi bai er shi lai jin” (one hundred and twenty jin or so) is also 10 的倍数 (5)
the multiple of 10 (5) 上+百、 千、 万、 亿 表示的概数,比如说上百人、
General numbers of shang +bai, qian, wan, yi, for example, “shang bai ren (one hundred people or so), 上千斤、 上万元 第六种情况是近+数词,近百人、
Shang qian jin, shang wan yuan the sixth condition is jin +numeral, “jin bai ren(nearly one hundred people), 近千元、 近 13 亿人口 第七种情况是约+数词,约八斤、
jin qian yuan(nearly ten thousand yuan), jin 13 yi ren kou (nearly 1.3 billion people)” the seventh condition is yue +numeral, “yue ba jin” (about eight jin), 约十二个小时 第八种情况是个、
Yue shi er ge xiao shi (about twelve hours)” the eighth condition is ge, 百、 千、 万 加上把,个把月、
Bai, qian, wan plus ba, “ge ba yue (several months or so), 百把斤这种说法 第九种情况,数词+量词+左右
bai ba jin” the ninth condition, numeral + quantifier +zuo you 比如说:三十岁左右或者三十左右,一星期左右
For example: “san shi sui zuo you” or “san shi zuo you” (thirty years old or so), “yi xing qi zuo you” (one week or so) 第十种情况就是名词加上前后,比如说:五一前后、 春节前后 这也是表示一种概数。
The tenth condition is noun plus qian hou, for instance: “wu yi qian hou” (Before and after the May Day, and “chun jie qian hou” (before and after the Spring Festival) also refer to a kind of general numbers. 第十一种情况是数词+量词+上下 比如说:二十岁上下、
The eleventh condition is numeral + quantifier + shang xia, for example:“er shi sui shang xia” (twenty years or so) 五十上下 第十二种情况是数词+量词+以上或者以下
“wu shi shang xia” (fifty or so) the twelfth condition is numeral + quantifier + yi shang or yi xia 比如说:六个以上或者以下、 八斤以上或者以下
For example: “liu ge yi shang or yi xia” (six more or less), ba jin yi shang or yi xia


(二)数词的作用,数词主要和量词一起组成”数词+量词”短语 做定语、
(II) the function of numeral, the numeral forms the “numeral + quantifier” phrase together with the quantifier and used as attribute, 主语、 宾语和补语等。
subject, object, complement and so forth 1.
1. 做定语 (1)学校来了一位新老师,这里面的一位
Used as attribute (1) there is a new teacher in the school, what does the “yi wei” (a) 数词加上量词,做的是什么呢,新老师的定语。
numeral plus quantifier use as? The attribute of new teacher 第二例,他喝了两瓶啤酒,这个两,数词,瓶是量词。
Example two, he drank two bottles of beer. The “liang” (two), numeral, bottles are quantifiers 所以呢做啤酒的定语。
Hence, they are the attribute of beer. 2.
2. 做主语 (1) 一天花了200块钱,这里面的 “一天”是主语。
Used as subject (1) two hundred Yuan was spent out in one day. The “yi tian” (one day) is the subject. 第二个:一个不够吃。
Example two: one is not enough to eat. 这个”一个”呢也是做主语的。
The “yi ge” (one) is also used as the subject. 3.
3. 做宾语。
Used as object (1)我喝了五瓶,这里面的五瓶是什么呢? “五瓶”就是一个宾语。
(1) I drank five bottles of it. What is the “five bottles” here”? An object 他买了一个。
He bought one. 这个”一个”呢也是宾语。
The “one” is also a object. 4.
4. 做补语。
Used as complement. 例如 (1)我们等了一天。
For example (1) we waited for a day. “等了一天”这是一个时间补语,做的是一个数量, 是数词”一”加上”天”做的是补语。
“Waited for a day” is a time complement, and is used as a quantity. The numeral of “one” plus “day” is used as a complement. 老师讲过一次。
The teacher saidonce. 这个也是一个数量补语。
This is also a quantity complement. 注意,”一+量词”中的”一”啊在口语中有时
Pay attention, the “yi” of “yi + quantifier” can be omitted in spoken Chinese 可以省略,例如:我想 找(一)个人聊聊,这个(一)我们在口语中经常
sometimes for example: I want to chat with “(yi) ge ren” (somebody). The “yi” is generally 地省略,我们经常说我想找个人聊聊。
omitted in spoken Chinese. Chinese people often say that I want to find a person to chat with me. 第二,你去 买(一)瓶水,这个(一)啊在口语中也是经常省略的,
Second, “ni qu mai (yi) pin shui” (buy a bottle of water, please), the “yi” is also omitted in spoken Chinese in general. 我们经常说,你去买瓶水,但是要注意的问题是什么呢?
We often say, “ni qu mai pin shui”. While, what shall be noted here? 就是这种”省略”是有条件的,是有条件,那么条件是什么呢?
This “omission” is conditional. What is the condition? (1)就是”一+量词+名词”
(1)”yi +quantity + noun” 是做谓语动词的宾语;注意,要特别注意是宾语的时候。
is used as the object ofpredicate verb; pay attention, especially when the “yi” is used as an object 这个”一”啊才有省略的可能性,也就是做宾语的时候。
it is possible to be omitted. 其他的主语啊定语啊都是不能省略的。
Other subject and attribute shall not be omitted. 第二个是什么呢?
就是谓语动词也有要求,谓语动词指什么呢?单音节,这个特别注意,就是一个汉字,
The second
There are requirements of predicate verb. What does predicate verb referring to? Single syllable, focus on it, that is to say, one Chinese character, 这个动词是一个汉字的时候,那么这个宾语的这个里面的这个
When the verb is a Chinese character, the “yi” of this object “一”啊有时候可以省略,而且不带”着” 或者是”过”,啊,注意,这个特别容易错。
can be omitted sometimes and without “zhe”, or “guo”. Pay attention, this is easy to make mistakes here. 第三种情况,量词也有要求,就是这个量词啊,也是
The third condition, there are requirements of quantifiers. That is to say, the quantifier is also 主要是单音节的,就是一个汉字,一个汉字的量词,数词容易省略掉。
monosyllabic, one Chinese character, the quantifier of one Chinese character, numerals are easy to be omitted. 但是呢,货币单位、 时间单位或者度量衡单位这样的量词 除外。
However, except for the quantifiers such as currency unit, time unit or unit of measure. 就是这样的量词啊跟音节没有关系,一个
These quantifiershas no connection to syllables. 音节或者两个音节都没有关系,最后一个条件就是 全句没有突出或强调
The last condition is that the whole sentence did not highlight or emphasize 数量的意思,这个也很重要,就是说这句话它不强调或不突出这个数量。
the meanings of quantity. It is also significant. That is to say it does not highlight or emphasize the quantity. 这个时候,这个”一”啊就可以省略掉
也就是说这四个条件,这四个条件是缺一不可,啊,缺一不可。
And then the “yi” can be omitted
That is to say that the four conditions are indispensable. 此外啊,数词还可以做主语、 宾语、 谓语等。
In addition, numerals can also be used as subject, object, predicate and so on. 1.
1. 做主语,例一:一是一,二是二 这个”一”就是主语了,”二”也是主语了。
Used as subject, example one: one is one, two is two. The “one” is the subject, so does the “two”. (2)三大于二,这个”三”呢也是主语了。
(2) three is greater than two. The “three” is also the subject. 2.
2. 做宾语。
Used as object 例一我们看看:三三得九。
Example one: three times three equals nine. 这个九是什么呢?这个九就是宾语了。
What is the nine used for? It is the object. 例二的九减一等于八。
Example two, nine minus one equals eight. 这个八呢也是宾语。
The eight is also the object. 第三呢,做谓语。
Third, used as predicate 例一的六六三十六。
Example one, six times six equals thirty six. 六六 三十六,这个三十六什么意思呢,就是来说明六六的,所以呢它是一个谓语。
six times six equals thirty six. What does the “thirty six” mean? It is used for describing “six times six”, so it is a predicate. 第二个三七二十一,这个二十一也是来说明 三七的,所以呢它也是谓语。
The second, three tomes seven equals twenty one. The “twenty one” is also used for describing “three times seven”, so it is also a predicate.


第三节 量词 一.
Section III quantifiers I. 量词的类别及量词、 数量的重叠式 (一)量词的类别表示人
The categories of quantifiers and the superposition of quantifiers and numbers (I) categories of quantifiersThe unit that represents the number of people, 事物数量的单位或动作发生次数的 单位叫做量词。
things, or the number of occurrences of actions is called a quantifier 量词可以根据意义分为名量词和动量词两类 我们先看一下 1.
Quantifiers can be divided into two categories ofnominal words and verbal words according to their meaning let us see at first 1. 名量词 表示人、 事物数量的单位叫做名量词
Noun quantifiersThe units that represent people and things are called noun quantifiers. 名量词可以按照它们的性质进一步分类 分为专用量词和借用量词。
noun quantifiers can be further classified into specialized quantifiers and borrowed quantifiers by their nature (1)专用量词
(1)Special quantifiers 专门做人或事物数量的单位,这样的量词叫做 专用量词。
The quantifier of a unit that specializes in the number of people or things is called a special quantifier. 主要有以下的这些。
The main ones are as follows. 我们来看一下表格 那么,专用量词主要有这些类:一个是个体单位。
Let’s take a look at the table,so, there are mainly these special classifiers: one is an individual unit. 所谓个体单位就是一个的我们经常说的”个、 条、 根、 张、 颗”这都是。
The so-called individual units is one. We often say that “ge, tiao, gen, zhang, and ke”are all individual units. 集体单位就是两个以上的这样的单位的 我们有”双、 对、 副、 群、 批”。
Collective units are more than two such units, such as: “shuang, dui, fu,qun, pi”. 度量衡单位的有”厘米、 立方米、 千克”。
Weights and measures units have “cm, cubic meters, and kilograms.” 还有货币单位,就是 钱的,有”块(元)、 毛(角)、
And currency unit, about money, such as:” kuai(yuan), mao(jiao), 分”,还有时间单位”分、 分钟、 点、 刻”,还有就是不定量词
fen” and time unit, such as” fen, fen zhong, dian, ke”In addition, indefinite Quantifier 就是它表示量不太确定,比较含糊,所以有 “些、 点儿”这样的就是。
It means that the amount is not sure and vague, such as: “xie, dian er”. 这些都是专用量词、 专用量词 应该注意的是
These are special quantifiers, and it should be noted that “天””周””年””分”还有”秒(钟)” 这些都是量词,不是名词
“tian”, “zhou”, “fen” and “miao(zhong)” are quantifiers, not nouns. 这个学习,外国学生学习的时候很容易弄错、 很容易弄错 比如说下面的说法都错了。
It is easy to make mistakes here. For example, 比如说一个天 不成立,不可以说一个周、 一个年都不可以。
“yi ge tian” is not right. “yi ge zhou” and “yi ge nian” are also wrong. 为什么呢? 学生误以为”天、 周、 年”都是名词,实际上
Why? students often think that “tian(day), zhou(week) and nian(year)” are nouns, actually, 这些”天、 周、 年”都是量词,所以只说一天、 一周、
They are quantifiers. Therefore, the expression of “yi tian (one day), yi zhou(one week), 一年就可以了 (2)借用量词
Yi nian(one year)” is okay. (2)Borrowed quantifiers 一些表示容器或身体器官的名词,比如说”箱 桌、
Some nouns that represent containers or body organs, such as “boxes, desks, 盆、 盘、 碗、 锅、 桶、 身、 手、 脸、
basins, plates, bowls, pots, pails, bodies, hands, faces, 脚”等 可以临时借用来做量词使用
feet,” can be temporarily borrowed to be used as quantifiers 例如:我买了一箱苹果,这个”箱”,”箱”就是箱子的意思 箱子应该是个名词。
For example: I bought a box of apples. The “box” shall be a noun. 在这个时候它临时 当做一个量词来使用 我们再看第②例:哥哥踩了一脚泥。
It is temporarily borrowed to be used asa quantifier. Let us see the example ②: Brother stepped on a mud with his foot. 这个”脚”是什么?”脚”就是名词了 但是在这儿呢,”一脚泥”这个是表示一个量词 2.
What is the “foot”? noun, however, “yi jiao ni”(a mud with his foot) represents a quantifier 2. 动量词表示动作行为发生的次数的单位叫做动量词
Verb quantifiers The unit that indicates the number of occurrences of an action is called a verb quantifier. 动量词可以分为专用动量词和借用动量词两种 (1)专用动量词
Verb quantifiers can be divided into two kinds of special verb quantifiers and borrowed verb quantifiers (1) special verb quantifiers 专门表示动作行为发生的次数的单位叫做专用动量词 这种动量词主要有”回、
A unit that specifically indicates the number of times an action takes place is called a special verb quantifier This kind of verbal words mainly include “hui, 趟、 次、 遍、 下、 阵 场、 顿”等。
tang, ci, bian,xia, zhen, chang, dun and so on. 例如,我们来看一个例子 中国我去过一次。
For instance, I have been to China once (yi ci). 这个”次”就是一个动量词 动量词。
The “ci” is a verb quantifier. verb quantifier (2)借用动量词 表示四肢器官的名词
(2) borrowed verb quantifiers The nouns that represent the limbs 以及表示行为动作工具的名词,像”拳、 脚、 眼、 口、
and the nouns that express the tools of action, such as “fist, foot, eye, mouth, 刀、 枪”等 也可以临时借用来作动量词使用 例如,我们来看一下:他打了我一拳。
knife, gun”can also be temporarily borrowed to be used asverb quantifiers. For example,He punched me with his fist. 这个”拳”是什么呢? 这个”拳”应该是个名词,是拳头的意思,是个名词,但是在这是
What the fist is? A noun However, it is 当做一个量词来使用了。
used as a verb quantifier. 那么常见量词的这个使用情况 我们看一下,这个表格里边
Let us have a look at the usage of common quantifiers. In this chart, 这些都是什么呢?都是我们常见的 名量词。
what are these? They are common noun quantifiers. 常见的名量词我们说有”个、 位、 条、 件 根、 本、 块、 张”等。
Common noun quantifiers include “ge, wei, tiao, jian, gen, ben, kuai, zhang” and so forth. 它的主要的使用情况 就是它,比如说”个”用来说人或者事物的 它的适用范围。
About its usage, take an example of “ge”, 它经常搭配的名词主要”人、 鸡蛋、 香蕉、
It is often accompanied by nouns of”people, eggs, bananas, 问题” 那么”位”呢,这个是也是用来用于什么呢?尊敬的人,它的使用对象
And questions”What about “wei”? It is used for respectful people. 那么它搭配的名词有”朋友、 老师、 客人、
先生”,就是它们经常一起用,可以说一位朋友、 一位老师 一位客人。
It is often accompanied by nouns of “friends, teachers, guests,
gentlemen”. For example, “yi wei friend, yi wei teacher and yi wei guest.” “条”呢?”条”是用于细长的东西 它的适用对象,那么主要的搭配的名词有裤子、
What about “tiao”? “tiao” is used for slender things. Its object of application, and is often accompanied by nouns of pants, 毛巾、 鱼、 河、 腿 我们经常说一条裤子、
一条毛巾、 一条鱼、 一条河、 一条 腿等。
Towel, fish, river, legsWe often say that “yi tiao ku zi (pants),
Yi tiao mao jin(towel), yi tiao yu(fish), yi tiao he(river), yi tiao tui(leg),etc. 那么”件”呢?”件”是用于个体的事物 那么它经常搭配的有衣服、 事情。
What about “jian”? “jian” is used for individual things. It is often accompanied by nouns of clothes and things. 也就是说一件衣服,一件事情 由于时间的问题,我们就不一一解释说明了。
That is, “yi jian yi fu(cloth), yi jian shi qing(thing). Due to the issue of time, we will not explain them one by one. 大家可以看一下这个表格就可以 那么下面这个”片、 把、 台、
You can see the chart. And then let us move to the usage of “pian, ba, tai, 架、 支” 这个它的使用情况,搭配的名词,我们都罗列出来了 便于学习和使用。
Jia, zhi”. The nouns that match them are listed in order to learn and use. 我们也不细说 下面还有一些”所、
We will not talk about them specifically. There are some usages of “suo, 家、 种 样、 门、 首、 篇、 段”,它的使用情况
Jia, zhong, yang, men, shou, pian, duan” 我们都说得很详细,然后搭配的名词,这些都是我们常见的
搭配的名词,所以呢这个大家可以这么练习一下就可以了
We have talked them in detail. The matched nouns are common
So you just practice them. 下面还有一些”份、 棵 粒、 对、
There are some usages of “fen, ke, li, dui, 双、 副、 套”它们的使用情况 搭配的名词。
Shuang, fu, tao” and matched nouns. (2) 常见的动量词。
(2) Common verb quantifiers 前面是我们说的都是名词的 常见的动量词,常见的动量词主要有什么呢?”次、
In front of what we are talking about are the common verb quantifiers of nouns.What are the main verb quantifiers? The usages of “ci, 下、 回 趟、 遍、 场、 阵、 顿”等。
Xia, hui, tang, bian, chang, zhen, dun,” etc. 这些量词的使用情况 我们看一下表格。
Let us take a look at the chart. “次、 下、 回”它使用的情况
主要是用于什么呢?反复出现的行为动作,或者反复出现的事情
What is condition of “ci, xia, hui”? Recurring behaviors or recurring things 跟它经常搭配的动词、 动词 主要有这些”去、
The verbs that often matchwith it mainly include “go, 来、 学、 玩、 打、 骂 说、 做、 吃、 写、 打印”。
Come, learn, play, fight, curse, say, do, eat, write, and print”. 名词 有”饭、 电影、 会、 约会、
And nouns mainly include “meal, movie, meeting, date, 可”,那是什么意思呢?就是说,举个例子来说:去,我们可以说去一次
去一次;学,学一次。
What does this mean? For example: qu (go), can be expressed like, qu yi ci; xue(learn), can be expressed like, xue yi ci. 那么 玩,玩一次,这样的意思,所以是写,写一次 就是这样的。
More examples, wan(play), can be expressed like, wan yi ci. So does xie (write). “下”呢?表示行为动作进行的次数
What about “xia”? it represents number of times the action was performed 用于短时间的,注意它是短时间的行为动作 动作行为。
Used for short time, pay attention, it is behavior action in a short time. 那么,跟”下”经常搭配的有哪些动词呢 就是有这些”说、
So, what are verbs matched with “xia”? they are “say, 看、 听、 介绍、 等、 找、 洗 打、 敲、
骂、 写、 讲、 复习、 预习”等,等等。
watch, listen, introduce, wait, find, wash, hit, knock,
curse, write, speak, review, preview”, etc. 那么它后面的 就是”一下”,这个后面出现的名词主要有”作业、 电话、 词典、
The word after them is “yi xia”, and then they will be followed by “homework, telephone,dictionary, 课文、 汉字”等等 由于这个时间的问题,我们就不一一介绍,这里面都写得很详细
text, Chinese character” and so forth. Due to the issue of this time, we will not introduce one by one. they are written in great detail. 大家可以参照这个表格去进行学习、 使用
You can learn and use according to this chart. 下面的也是一样,”趟、 遍、 场、 阵、 顿” 使用的情况。
The followings are the same. The usage of “tang, bian, chang, zhen, dun” 比如说”趟”吧,表示走动的次数,注意是”走动”的,跟”走”有关系的 动词。
Take an example of “tang”, referring to times of verbs, such as: “walk, 那么它的动词主要有”去、 来、 跑”,经常搭配的名词 “车、 北京、 中”。
come, run”, which are often matched with nouns of “car, Beijing, zhong (-ing)”. 举个例子来说:”去”可以说什么呢?去一趟 去一趟什么?去一趟北京。
For example: “qu” (go) often matched with “yi tang” and followed by the name of places, such as “Beijing”. 所以这样的使用。
It is used like his. “来”,来一趟北京 来一趟中国。
“lai” (come), “lai yi tang Beijing”“lai yi tang China” 这样的用,”遍”其他的一些情况都很详细
Other conditions of “bian” is stated in great detail.

 


(二)量词和数量的重叠式。
(II) Overlap of quantifiers and quantity 1.
1. 量词的重叠式 除了双音节量词、 货币单位、
Overlap of quantifiers except for quantifiers of double syllables, currency units, 时间单位和不定量词不能重叠以外 大多数的量词啊都可以重叠,那么重叠后表示什么呢?
“每一””每一”的意思。
time units and indefinite quantifiers, which require no overlap, most quantifiers can be overlapped. What do them represent after overlapping? “mei yi” (every one) 比如说,”个” 我们可以说 “个个””条”
可以说 “条条”, “门” 可以说 “门门”。
For example, “ge” can be expressed just like “ge ge”. so do “tiao” and “men” 量词重叠式 多做主语,做定语的时候有很大的限制 (1)我们看做主语的例子。
Overlaps of quantifiers are often used as subjects and greatly limited when it is used as attributes (1) let us take a look at some examples. 第一个例子:家家都有汽车 这个 “家家”
Example one: “jia jia” (every family) has cars. What does the “jia jia” 是什么意思?实际上就是 “每家” 的意思 第二个例子:年年都去国外旅游。
mean? “mei jia” (every family) in fact. Example two: foreign travel is realized “nian nian” (every year) 这个 “年年” 它的意思就相当于 “每年” 第二,作定语。
The “nian nian” has the same meaning of “mei nian” (every year). second, used as attribute 看第一个例子:条条大路通罗马。
Example one: “tiao tiao” (every) path leads to Rome. 这个 “条条” 就是 “每条” 的意思。
The “tiao tiao” has the same meaning of “mei tiao”. 但是呢 个个学生都会汉语。
However, “ge ge” (every) student understands Chinese. 这个 “个个” 作定语的时候呢 就不是太好,不是太好,所以呢做主语
The “ge ge” here is not suitable to be used as a attribute. Hence, it is often used 比较多一些,做定语呢有一些限制 2.
as a subject. There are limitations when it is used as a attribute 2. 数量重叠式 刚才是量词可以重叠。
Overlap of quantity the above is the overlap of quantifiers 我们说汉语的数词 “一”
When the “yi” (one) of Chinese numerals 加上量词啊,也可以有两种重叠的方式,一种是 一AA式,另一种呢是一A一A式。
is added with quantifiers, there are two ways of overlap. One is the form of “yi” AA, the other is the form of “yi” A “yi” A. 比如说:一个 一个我们可以说一个个,一张 可以说一张张。
For example: “yi ge” (one) can be expressed just like “yi ge ge”. So does “yi zhang”. 这是一种重叠,就是一AA式 我们也可以是另外一种重叠方式,就是
This is a kind of overlap, namely, “yi” AA. Another way of overlap can also be used. 一个可以说一个一个,一张可以说一张 一张。
“yi ge” can be expressed just like “yi ge yi ge”. so does “yi zhang” 也就是说一A一A式,两种重叠的方式 数量重叠式的作用。
Namely, “yi” A “yi” A. There are two ways of overlap. The function of overlap of quantity (1)作定语。
(1) Used as attributes 数量重叠式的主要语法功能是做定语 表示事物存在的方式,有描写的色彩。
The main grammaticalfunction of the overlappingof quantity is to be used as attributivesreferring tothe form of existence of things,with a style of description. 那么做定语啊,一般要带 “的”
例如,我们来看一下,第一个例子:他从包里掏出 一块一块的巧克力。
The “de” is required after it, when it is used as a attribute.
For example, he takes a stick of chocolate from his bag. 那么这个 “一块一块” 什么意思呢?
实际上是说,这个巧克力是成块状的 就是块的样子。
What does the “yi kuai yi kuai” (a stick of) mean?
It means that the shape of chocolate is “kuai” (block). 第二个例子:从飞机上看下去,一条条的河流 就像一根根细线。
Example two: looking down from the plane, “yi tiao tiao” (a) river is like “yi gen gen” (a) thin line. 那么这个 “一条条” 是什么意思呢?就是这个河流是成条状
What does the “yi tiao tiao” mean? It means that the shape of river is bar. 这个 “细线” 呢是成根,根状
The shape of thin line is “gen”. 所以呢表示的这个河流和细线的这个样子和方式 (2)做状语。
Therefore, they represent the shape and way of rivers and thin lines (2) used as adverbials 数量重叠式啊也可以做状语 但是意思就发生变化,它表示什么呢?”逐一”
The overlap of quantity can also be used as adverbials. However, it has different meanings. What does it represent? “zhu yi” (one by one) 或者 “重复” 等意思 我们来看一下具体的例子。
or “chong fu” (repetition) let us take a look at some specific examples. 比如说第一个例子:书要一本一本地看 这个 “一本一本”
Example one: books shall be read “yi ben yi ben” (one by one). What dose the “yi ben yi ben” 是什么意思呢?它不是每一本 也不是说表示书的样子,而是说什么呢?
mean? It does not represent the meaning of every book and the shape of books. It represents “逐本逐本” 地看,”逐一”的意思 第二个,我一遍一遍地写这些汉字
“zhu ben zhu ben” or “zhu yi” (one by one). Example two, I write these Chinese characters over and over again. 那实际上这个 “一遍一遍” 什么意思呢?是表示 “重复”、 “多遍”。
What does the “yi bian yi bian” (over and over again) mean? “repetition”, “many times” (2)做主语 重叠式也可以做主语,表示
(2)used as subjects overlap can also be used as a subject, referring to “每一””每一” 的意思,有描写的色彩。
“mei yi” (every one), with the style of description 我们看一下第一个例子:这些书 一本本又厚又重。
Let us take a look at the first example: “ yi ben ben” (every one) of these books is thick and heavy. 那么这个 “一本本” 什么意思呢?就是 “每一本” 的意思 “每一本” 的意思。
What does the “yi ben ben” mean? “mei yi ben” (every book) 第二个是什么?一排一排全是新房子 这个
“一排一排” 就是 “每一排”,所以它有什么呢?
What is the second? “yi pai yi pai”(each row) of them is new house. The
“yi pai yi pai” refers to “mei yi pai” (each row). therefore, it represents “每一” 的意思 但是这有描写,有描写的色彩 二.
the meaning of “mei yi” (every one), with the style of description II. 数量做状语带 “地” 问题 (一)”数词+量词” 做状语,不带 “地”。
The quantity which is used as adverbials with “de” (-ly) (I) “numerals + quantifiers” which is used as adverbials without “de” (-ly) 比如说我们看第一个例子:弟弟 一口就把一个饺子全吃了。
Let us have a look at the first example: the brother took a mouthful of dumpling. 这个 “一口” 是数量,但是它做的是状语 表示什么呢?这个动作的方式。
The “yi kou” (a mouthful of ) is quantity and used as a adverbial. What does it refer to? The way of the action. 第二个例子:警察一把 抓住了那个人。
Example two: the police got hold of the person by hand. 那个 “一把” 是什么呢?也是一种状语,它是也是 表示动作的方式。
What is the “yi ba”? a adverbial referring to the way of the action. 那么我们看得出来 “一口”、 “一把” 后面都是没有这个 “地”
You can see that there is no “de” (-ly) after the words of “yi kou” and “yi ba”. 不能用 “地”
The “de” (-ly) is not allowed here. (二)数量重叠式做状语可以带 “地”,也可以不带
(II) the “de” (-ly) is freely used when the overlap of quantity is used as adverbials. 比如说我们看第一个例子:路要一步一步(地)走 我们也可以说
“路要一步一步走” 也可以。
Example one: you can “yi bu yi bu de zou”(walk step by step).
The expression of that you can “yi bu yi bu zou” (walk step by step) is also okay. 这个 “地” 啊可以用,也可以不用 这是什么呢?为什么?它是
“一步一步” 是一个数量重叠的 数量重叠的重叠式。
The “de” (-ly) here is freely used. Why?
The “yi bu yi bu” is a overlap of quantity. 第二个:时间一天天过去了,我们也可以说,时间 一天天地过去了,圣诞节很快就要到了。
Example two: time flies “yi tian tian” (day by day). We can also say that time flies “yi tian tian de” (day by day), and Christmas is coming soon. 那这个 “一天天” 后面可以有 “地” 啊,也可以是没有 “地”,都可以,都可以
The “de” is freely used after the “yi tian tian”. it is okay whether there is “de” or not. 好,今天的课我们就结束了,谢谢!
OK,that’s all for today.Thank you!